Seed production technology of Wheat

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Welcome 11/12/2010 1

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Speaker : Mohammad Safar Noori Seed production Technology Of Wheat

Introduction:

Introduction It is the most important human food grain and ranks second in total production as a cereal crop behind maize and the third being rice. Wheat is the staple food for over ten billion people in as many as 43 countries of the world. Wheat provides nourishment to 35% of world population. Wheat cultivation has traditionally been dominated by the northern region of India. The northern states of Punjab and Haryana Plains in India have been prolific wheat producers. Today, India is exporting sufficient quantities of all types of wheat and extensive research efforts are underway for improving its cereals and grain output in the years to come. The major Wheat production State are Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Bihar, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka, West Bengal, Uttaranchal, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu & Kashmir. The share of wheat in total food grain production is around 35.5 % and share in area is about 21.8 % of the total area and their food grain ( Rao , 2006). 11/12/2010 3

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Seed enterprises consider ‘wheat seed’ to be of secondary importance, since it is a self-pollinating crop and the grain can be used as seed, farmers tend to replant their own seed. In last ten years significant efforts have been made for commercial exploitation of hybrid wheat through the use of gametocide and CMS lines. Today France and Italy are at the verge of commercial release of such wheat hybrids for grain purposes. Wheat Targets - 2030 AD 90.0 m tons of wheat to feed Indian population by the year 2030 A.D. O R I G I N The exact place and date of the origin of wheat plant that we recognize today is unknown. Hexaploid wheats , widely grown to day thought to have evolved before 7000 BC in an area from just south of the Caspian Sea in Northern Iran Eastward into Northern Afghanistan . De Candolle believed – Valley of Euphrates and Tigris But Vavilov Origin of Durum wheat probably Abyssinia Soft wheat groups – In the region of Western Pakistan, SW Afghanistan, and Some parts of mountainous Babshara 11/12/2010 4

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[1] Globally, it is the most important human food grain. The flour obtained from wheat is unique . [2] Wheat grain is a staple food used to make flour for leavened, flat and steamed breads; cookies, cakes, pasta, noodles and couscous; [3] Fermentation to make beer, [4] Alcohol, vodka [5] Bio-fuel- extraction of ethanol from straw [6]. The husk of the grain, separated when milling white flour, is bran. [7] Wheat is planted to a limited extent as a forage crop for livestock and the straw can be used as fodder for livestock or as a construction material for roofing thatch. [8] Medicinal Uses: Germinated wheat sprouts are an effective and economical tonic to improve general health Punjabi Utensil(Chaba) Uses of wheat 11/12/2010 5

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Component in percentage 100 Protein 12-14 Fat 3-4 Starch 67-70 Ash 2 Total dietary 10-13 fibre 1-2 The Chemical Composition of Wheat ( % of Dray matter) Sponge cake Pasta Flat bread Asian steamed bread Pan 11/12/2010 6

Major cultivated species of wheat :

Major cultivated species of wheat Durum - ( T. durum ) The only tetraploid form of wheat widely used today, and the second most widely cultivated wheat today. Einkorn - ( T. monococcum ) A diploid species with wild and cultivated variants . One of the earliest cultivated, but rarely planted today. Common Wheat or Bread wheat - ( T. aestivum ) A hexaploid species that is the most widely cultivated in the world. Emmer - ( T. dicocum ) A tetraploid species, cultivated in ancient times but no longer in widespread use. Spelta - ( T. spelta ) Another hexaploid species cultivated in limited quantities. 11/12/2010 7

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Latest Release of wheat varieties HD-2894 ( 2008) High yielding variety for NCR Delhi, with an average yield of 5.2 t/ha having a protein content of 12.9%, It is developed by IARI New Delhi HD-4713 (durum) (2008) High yielding durum variety for NCR Delhi, with an average yield of 4.71 t/ha having a protein content of 5.15 %. It is resistant to brown rust under both natural and artificial conditions Pusa Gold (WR-544 ) ( 2005) for late sown, irrigated conditions of Delhi region, released by IARI New Delhi. Pusa Visesh (HD-2851) (2005 ) & HD-4713(d) (2006) timely sown, irrigated conditions of Delhi region, released by IARI New Delhi Poorva (HD 2824) (2005) timely sown irrigated for NEPZ region, released by IARI New Delhi HD-2888 (2006) timely sown, Rainfed conditions for NEPZ region, released by IARI New Delhi Shresth (HD 2687) (2005), Aditya (HD 2781) (2005 ) timely sown, irrigated conditions of NWPZ region, released by IARI New Delhi 11/12/2010 8

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Pusa Tripti (HD-2833)(2006) Late sown & Irrigated conditions of PZ, released by IARI New Delhi Urja (HD 2864) for late sown, irrigated conditions for CZ region, released by IARI New Delhi Amrta (HI 1500) for timely sown unirrigated for central India, released by IARI Indore Swarna (HI 1479) for timely sown irrigated condition for central India, released by IARI Indore PBW 502 timely sown, irrigated conditions of NWPZ credited with Punjab Agriculture Univ. DBW 14 late sown, irrigated conditions of NEPZ credited with Directorate of Wheat Research 11/12/2010 9

New wheat varieties released (2009-10):

New wheat varieties released (2009-10) Wheat varieties Name with parentage Developed by (Name of the Institute) Production Condition Area of Adoption Grain yield (q/ha) Avg. Potential VL 907 DYBR 1982-83/842 ABVD 50/ W9385 // PBW 343 VPKAS, Almora NHZ TS-IR 44.3 56.9 TS-RF 27.9 43.5 PDW 314 (d) AJAIA-12 /F3 LOCAL SEL. ETHIO -135.85//PLATA 13/3/SOMA T-3/ 4/SOOTY/ RASCON 37 PAU, Ludhiana NWPZ TS-IR 50.3 66.1 DBW 39 ATTILA/ HUI DWR, Karnal NEPZ TS-IR 44.0 55.2 MPO 1215 (d) GW 1113/ GW 1114// HI 8381 JNKVV, Powarkheda CZ TS-IR 47.8 65.3 MACS 6222 HD 2189*2/ MACS 2496 ARI, Pune PZ TS-IR 42.8 60.9 AKAW 4627 Selection from VIMAL PDKV, Akola PZ LS-IR 42.8 60.9 KRL210 PBW 65/2*PASTOR CSSRI, Karnal Salt affected TS-IR 33.7 49.3 KRL 213 CNDO / R143// ENTE/ MEXI-1-1/3/Ae.squarrosa (TAUS)/4/ WEAVER/5 /2 /*KAUZ CSSRI, Karnal Salt affected TS-IR 33.6 43.9 Source: DWR-2010 11/12/2010 10

Top 10 wheat producers (2009-10):

Top 10 wheat producers (2009-10) Country Quantity (m tons) China 115.0 India 80.7 Russia 61.7 USA 60.3 France 39.4 Canada 26.5 Germany 25.1 Pakistan 24.0 Australia 22.5 Ukraine 20.0 Turkey 17.8 Global Wheat Scenario 2 nd largest producer in the world next to China from last 10 years DWR,2010 11/12/2010 11

Estimated need of wheat seed for Afghanistan in 2009 FAO , 2009:

Estimated need of wheat seed for Afghanistan in 2009 FAO , 2009 Cultivated Area Seeding Rare Seed Requirements Replacement Rate Estimated Supply through Local Market Estimate Emergency Need Total Estimated Emergency Need 0 % 45,000 Mt 0 % 25,000 Mt 70,000 Mt Irrigated Wheat Rain-fed Wheat 11/12/2010 12

Wheat in India:

Wheat in India Second most important winter cereal after rice. Bread wheat contributes approximately 95% to total production Remaining 4% from durum wheat and 1% from Dicoccum 11/12/2010 13

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The Production Scenario Year Wheat Area (m ha) Production (m t) Productivity (t/ha) 2000-01 25.7 69.7 2.7 2001-02 26.3 72.8 2.8 2002-03 25.2 65.8 2.6 2003-04 26.6 72.1 2.7 2004-05 26.4 68.6 2.6 2005-06 26.7 69.4 2.6 2006-07 28.5 74.9 2.6 2007-08 28.1 78.6 2.8 2008-09 27.8 80.68 2.9 2009-10 28.5 80.71 2.8 * 4 th estimates, DAC, MoA , GOI In last 25 yrs, moderate growth rate of 2.27 %. 11/12/2010 15

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Productivity (q/ha) of wheat growing states 11/12/2010 16

Table 1. Area , Production and Yield of India and Karnataka (2007-2008) :

Table 1. Area , Production and Yield of India and Karnataka (2007-2008) Area (000 ha) Production ( 000 ton) Yield (Kg/ha) India 28038.6 77633.9 2802 Karnataka 276.0 190.0 946 Annon. (2009) 11/12/2010 17

Wheat Growing Zones of India:

Wheat Growing Zones of India Zone Area covered Area m ha (%) Northern Hills Zone (NHZ) Western Himalayan regions of J&K (except Jammu and Kathua distt .); H.P. (except Una and Paonta Valley); Uttarakhand (except Tarai area); Sikkim and hills of West Bengal and N.E. States 0.8 (2.9%) North Western Plains Zone (NWPZ) Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Rajasthan (except Kota and Udaipur divisions), Western UP (except Jhansi division), parts of J&K (Jammu and Kathua districts), HP ( Una dist. and Paonta valley) and Uttarakhand ( Tarai region) 11.3 (40.1%) North Eastern Plains Zone (NEPZ) Eastern UP, Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, West Bengal, Assam and plains of NE States 9.5 (33.2%) Central Zone (CZ) MP, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Rajasthan(Kota and Udaipur divisions) and UP ( Jhansi division) 5.2 (18.1%) Peninsular Zone (PZ) Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Goa, plains of Tamil Nadu 1.6 (5.4%) Southern Hills Zone (SHZ) Hilly areas of Tamil Nadu and Kerala comprising the Nilgiri and Palni hills of southern plateau 0.1 (0.4%) TOTAL 28.5 11/12/2010 18

WHEAT GROWING ZONES OF INDIA :

WHEAT GROWING ZONES OF INDIA 11.3 (40.1%) 0.8 (2.9%) 9.5 (33.2%) 1.6 (5.4%) 5.2 (18.1%) 0.1 (0.4%) 11/12/2010 19

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Floral morphology Floral structure : The inflorence of wheat is called spike of spikelet (15-20 no.) spikelets are borne on zig zag rachis in two alternate rows with a terminal spikelet. The spikelets are sessile and each spikelet contains 3-7 florets Only lateral florets are fertile & the central ones may be sterile. 11/12/2010 20

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At the base of each spikelet , there are two oppositely placed empty glumes. Each floret comprises of a lemma ending in awn , a palea , 2 lodicules, androecium & gynoecium. The androecium consists of 3 stamens with thin filament & large bilobed anthers. Gynoecium consists of monocarpellary superior ovary with 2 feathery stigma . Wheat at the anthesis stage Cont…. 11/12/2010 21

Floral biology :

Floral biology Main Culm flowers first & the tillers bloom later in order of their formation . Flowering starts at approximately 2/3 from the base and proceeds in both the directions. Blooming remains throughout the day & it takes 3-5 days for completion . Flower opening is usually during warmer part of the day i.e. , between 9 am to 2 pm and peak period between 10 am to 1 pm Anther dehiscence takes place simultaneously & hence the crop is highly self- pollinated ( < 1% cross pollination) 11/12/2010 22

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Monocot species like wheat have caryopsis (cereal grains) as propagation units. Caryopses are single-seeded fruits in which the testa (seed coat) is fused with the thin pericarp (fruit coat) . Cereal grains have highly developed embryos and in cereal grains the triploid endosperm consists of the starchy endosperm (dead storage tissue) and the aleurone layer (living cells). Organs of the cereal embryo are: coleoptile (shoot sheath), scutellum , the radicula & the coleorhizae (root sheath). SEED 11/12/2010 23

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Seed development Stages in Wheat :

Seed development Stages in Wheat Kernels at various stages during grain filling: a) kernel at watery ripe b) kernel at late milk c) kernel at soft dough d) kernel at hard dough showing loss of green color e) kernel ripe for harvest Physiological maturity: When the kernels have attained maximum dry weight it is physically matured. Note the green color is gone from the peduncle and head parts . 11/12/2010 25

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Cultural Practices for Seed production of Wheat 11/12/2010 26

Planning for wheat seed production :

Planning for wheat seed production Land to be used for seed production of wheat should be: Free of volunteer plants. The field should be well drained, Free of weeds. The soil neither too acidic not too alkaline. Long interval of Crop rotation is desirable Previous cropping The crop should be planted on a field with a known history to avoid contamination from volunteer plants, noxious weeds and soil-borne diseases that are potentially seed transmitted. A wheat seed crop should never immediately follow wheat, unless the wheat crop in the previous season was of the same variety and of the same or higher generation. Two year rotation for flag smut and seed gall nematode is suggested where applicable. Land requirement : 11/12/2010 27

Isolation requirement :

Isolation requirement Normally a self-pollinated crop( Clistogamous ) 1-4 % Cross pollination sometime occurs. It is sufficient to isolate seed fields with a strip of 3 meters all around which is planted with a non-cereal crop, or left uncroped . In cases where variety is susceptible to diseases caused by Ustilago spp . ( eg . loose smut) an isolation distance of 180 meters between seed field and other fields of wheat is recommended As per Indian minimum seed certification standards require only 150 m isolation from other wheat fields where in loose smut infection is in excess of 0.1% in the case of foundation seed production and 0.5 % in the case of certified seed production. 11/12/2010 28

Cultural Practices :

Cultural Practices Time of Sowing: Long duration varieties like C 306 should be sown during the first fortnight of November. Short and medium duration varieties like Sonalika , HD 1982 should be sown during the second fortnight of November. The optimum time of sowing for wheat is when the mean daily temperature is 23±3°C and for good tillering temperature should range between 16-20°C. 11/12/2010 29

Preparation of Land :

Preparation of Land Deep ploughing with a soil turning plough. Running a harrow before the pre-sowing irrigation. Give a light shallow ploughing or discing after pre-sowing irrigation. Levelling is an important part of seed bed preparation. Keep the seed bed free of weeds. Broadcast BHC, 10 per cent dust at 25 kg per hectare just before the last harrowing or ploughing . It may be added to the fertilizer and applied.This will prevent white ant and Gujhia attack. 11/12/2010 30

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Source of seed : Obtain nucleus/breeder's/ foudation seed from a source approved by the certification agency . Seed Rate: The recommended seed rate for seed crop is 85-100 kg per ha. The seed should be treated with systemic fungicide to control loose smut. Spacing : The row distance for seed crop should be kept at 22 to 23 cm to facilitate roguing and inspection work. For late sown wheat reduce the line spacing to 15-18 cm Crop Rotation : Wheat is mainly grown in rotation with rice, sugarcane, arhar (pigeon pea) and sorghum, cotton, pearl millet, cluster bean, sorghum, groundnut, 11/12/2010 31

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Seed rate (kg/ha) Yield (kg/ha) Multiplication Ratio 25 4 081 163 50 4 907 98 75 5 176 69 100 4 949 49 125 5 574 44 Mean 4937.4 84 Effect of seed rate on multiplication factor of wheat ( Gastel and Hopkins, 1988) Yield is average of two varieties . Source: FAO report (1988) SMR in Karnataka is 1:20 11/12/2010 32

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The seed crop is sown in rows with seed drill, or behind the plough in furrows. The depth of seeding should be 5 cm . Seed drill should be thoroughly cleaned and checked before use. Sowing of one variety should be completed before taking up another variety, to avoid mixture . If, for any reason, it has to be used for another variety, it should be thoroughly cleaned and checked so that not even a single seed of the previous variety is left. Method of sowing 11/12/2010 33

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This picture shows that Pamir 94 seed planted below 6 cm from the soil surface, as it is the case in traditional land tillage system, would have difficulties to emerge (photo shared by FAO) 11/12/2010 34

Fertilizer :

Fertilizer The recommended doses of fertilizers are: 80 to 120 kg/ha nitrogen, 50 to 60 kg/ha phosphorus 40 kg /ha potash 15 to 20 kg/ha zinc may be given at the seeding time (in case of deficiency). Apply the whole of the phosphoric and Potassic fertilizers and half of nitrogenous fertilizers while sowing, or just before sowing. Apply the remaining half of nitrogenous fertilizer at first irrigation. In rainfed conditions, all the fertilizer should be applied at the time of sowing as basal. 11/12/2010 35

Influence of different Nitrogen levels on growth and yield components of wheat variety (Uqab 2000) ( Liaqat Ali et al.,2003):

Influence of different Nitrogen levels on growth and yield components of wheat variety ( Uqab 2000) ( Liaqat Ali et al .,2003) N level Height (cm) Tillers/m Grain per spike 1000 grain weight (g) (kg ha –1 ) 2000–01 2001–02 2000–01 2001–02 2000–01 2001–02 2000–01 2001–02 T 1 = 84 75.5 e 86.2 e 340 e 350 d 32 e 38 d 34.6 d 37.0 d T 2 = 128 80.0 d 88.4 d 356 d 387 c 36 d 41c 37.0 c 39.2 c T 3 = 150 84.5 c 91.6 c 408 a 416 a 40 b 43 b 41.2 a 42.4 a T 4 = 175 87.0 b 95.4 b 380 b 405 b 42 a 46a 38.6 b 40.0 b T 5 = 200 89.8 a 97.6 a 365 c 390 c 39 c 40 c 36.9 c 37.6 d LSD (<0.05) 2.12 1.92 7.64 5.41 0.86 1.31 1.21 0.71 Means followed by similar letters are not significantly different from each other according to DMR test. 11/12/2010 36

Influence of N application on wheat grain yield (Liaqat Ali et al.,2003):

Influence of N application on wheat grain yield ( Liaqat Ali et al .,2003) N levels (kg ha –1 ) Grain yield (kg ha –1 ) 2000–01 2001–02 84 2940e 3600e 128 4090b 4770c 150 4330a 5160a 175 3890c 4920b 200 3250d 4730d LSD (<0.05) 38.81 6.85 11/12/2010 37

Field Inspection:

Field Inspection The best time to access cultivar purity is after ear-emergence when seed has started to fill. Latter inspection when glume and seed colour can be observed 11/12/2010 38

Irrigation :

Irrigation Depending on the soil, four to six irrigations may suffice. The first irrigation should be given at crown root initiation stage, about 30-35 days after sowing. Other irrigations should be given at late tillering , late jointing, flowering, milk and dough stages. Two to three extra irrigations may be needed on light soils . In case of zero tillage, first irrigation should also be applied similar to conventional tillage. Crown root initiation and heading stages are the most critical to moisture stress. 11/12/2010 39

Interculture:

Interculture Timely weeding and interculture are essential. Weed control by Periodic hoeing and weeding. For control of broad-leaved weeds spray 2-4 D at@ 0.5kg active ingredient per hectare in 750 liters of water after 25 to 30 days of sowing . For control of Phalaris minor or wild oats make a pre-emergence application of Penda methalin (stomp ) @ 1 kg per ha in 750 liters of water or spray Isproturon @ 1 kg per ha in 750 liters of water after 35 days of sowing . 11/12/2010 40

Roguing :

Roguing Two or three roguings may be necessary First roguing : Just ahead of the flowering stage, or during flowering to remove any off-type plants which are obvious at this state of growth. Second roguing : Just after flowering is completed, and before the crop starts to turn colour . Third roguing : should be done after the ear heads turn colour and start to mature. 11/12/2010 41

Wheat Diseases:

Wheat Diseases Flag Smut ( Urocystis agropyri ) Masses of black teliospores are produced in narrow strips just beneath the epidermis of leaves, leaf sheaths and occasionally the culms. The epidermis of older diseased plants tends to shred, releasing the teliospores : generally it is not an economically important disease, but where present, yield losses can range from trace amounts to moderate levels. Control : Seed treatment with Carboxin (75 WP @ 2.5 gm/kg seed) or Carbendazium (50 WP @ 2.5 gm/kg seed) or Tebuconazole (2DS @ 1.00 gm/kg seed) ,two days before sowing. Loose Smut ( Ustilago tritici ) The entire inflorescence, except the rachis, is replaced by masses of smut spores. The disease can occur wherever wheat is grown Yield losses depend on the number of spikes affected by the disease; incidence is usually less than one percent and rarely exceeds thirty percent of the spikes in any given location. Control : Seed treatment with carboxin (75 WP @ 2.5 gm/kg seed) or carbendazium (50 WP @ 2.5 gm/kg seed) Seed treatment with fungicide should be done one or two days before sowing. ……………………………………………………………………………………… 11/12/2010 42

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Cover Smut (Tilletia tritici ) Plants may be slightly shorter, and the heads are usually darker green than normal and remain green for a longer period. Bunt infections result in the complete replacement of the seed contents with a mass of smut spores. When crushed, the infected grain releases a fine black-brown powder with an odor like rotten fish. Bunt is potentially the most devastating smut disease. Control: seed treatment with Foliarflo-C , Maxiflo, Vitaflo C, or Vitavax Do not sow seed visibly infested with bunt (cover smut) Only sow disease free seed …………………………………………………………………………………………………… Stinking smut ( Tilletia caries) When bunt balls are crushed, they give off a fetid or fishy odor. Infected spikes tend to be bluish green in color (or darker), and the glumes tend to spread apart slightly; the bunt balls often become visible after the soft dough stage . A slight reduction in plant height is typical of common bunt. Considerable yield losses can occur when susceptible cultivars are grown or chemical seed treatments are not used. 11/12/2010 43

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…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Septoria ( Septoria tritici ) Initial infection sites tend to be irregular in shape, oval to elongated chlorotic spots or lesions. As these sites expand, the centers of the lesions become pale, straw colored, and slightly necrotic, often with numerous small black dots ( pycnidia ) . The lesions of septoria tritici blotch tend to be linear and restricted laterally Major losses can occur, through seed shrivelling and lower test weights, if these diseases reach severe levels prior to harvest. Take-all ( Gaeumannomyces graminis f. sp. tritici ) This fungus causes rotting of the roots and lower stems. Basal stem and leaf sheath tissues, as well as roots, may turn a shiny black color. When infection occurs early in the crop cycle, the number of tillers is often reduced and spikes are often sterile. Take-all is widespread in monocropped areas and has been known to cause considerable yield losses in winter wheat and fall-sown spring wheat areas, especially where liming or minimum tillage is practiced. Control : Later plantings are better,Use Ammonium Nitrate,Fertilize early, Use higher rates of fertilizer, Do not lime take-all infested soil, Rotate with other crops, corn may produce scab in wheat 11/12/2010 44

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Ergot ( Claviceps purpurea ) …………………………………………………………………………………………….. At flowering, infected florets produce a yellowish, sticky, sweet exudate (containing conidia) that is visible on the glumes. As the spike matures, kernels of infected florets are replaced by brown to purplish black fungal structures (sclerotia or "ergot bodies") . The disease is more prevalent in cool, humid climates. Yield losses tend to be small, but losses due to discounted grain quality can be significant and occur worldwide Common and Dwarf Bunt ( Tilletia controversa ) Bunt balls of Dwarf bunt is nearly spherical. When bunt balls are crushed, they give off a fetid or fishy odor. Infected spikes tend to be bluish green in color (or darker), and the glumes tend to spread apart slightly; the bunt balls often become visible after the soft dough stage. Considerable yield losses can occur when susceptible cultivars are grown or chemical seed treatments are not used. 11/12/2010 45

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Stem Rust or Black Rust ( Puccinia graminis f.sp . Tritici ) Pustules (containing masses of urediospores ) are dark reddish brown, and may occur on both sides of the leaves, on the stems, and on the spikes . If infection occurs during the early crop stages, the effects can be severe: reductions in tillering and losses in grain weight and quality. Under favorable conditions, complete crop loss can occur. Control: Growing , varieties, like GW 322, HD 2781, HUW 510, NIAW 34, MACS 2846(D), Raj 4037, In Peninsular Zone ………………………………………………………………………………… CZ, PZ & SHZ Powdery mildew on wheat ( Erysiphe graminis f. sp. Tritici ) the first visible symptoms of this disease are white to pale gray, fuzzy or powdery colonies of mycelia, and conidia on the upper surfaces of leaves and leaf sheaths (especially on lower leaves),and sometimes on the spikes. Older fungal tissue is yellowish gray. Powdery mildew can cause major yield losses if infection occurs early in the crop cycle and conditions remain favorable for development so that high infection levels are reached before heading. Control : one spray of propiconazole (25 EC) @ 0.1 % at earhead emergence or appearance of disease (whichever is earlier) is recommended for the powdery mildew prone areas. 11/12/2010 46

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…………………………………………………………………………… Strip Rust ( Puccinia striiformis ) The pustules of stripe rust, which, contain yellow to orange-yellow urediospores , usually form narrow stripes on the leaves . Pustules also can be found on leaf sheaths, necks, and glumes. Severe infections can cause yield losses, mainly by reducing the number of kernels per spike,test weights, and kernel quality ………………………………………………………………………………… Leaf Rust ( Puccinia recondita ) Infection sites primarily are found on the upper surfaces of leaves and leaf sheaths , and occasionally on the neck and awns. Severe early infections can cause significant yield losses, mainly by reducing the number of kernels per spike, test weights, and kernel quality. Control : Cultivation of recommended varieties like NW 1014, NW 2036, K 9107, HD 2733, MACS 6145, DBW 14, HD 2888 and HUW 468 All Zones NWPZ &NHZ 11/12/2010 47

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Karnal Bunt (Partial Bunt) Tilletia indica (syn. Neovossia indica ) Karnal bunt is not easily detected prior to harvest, since it is usual for only a few kernels per spike to be affected by the disease. Following harvest, diseased kernels can be easily detected by visual inspection: a mass of black teliospores replaces a portion of the endosperm, and the pericarp may be intact or ruptured. Diseased kernels give off a fetid or fishy odor when crushed. Karnal bunt is a relatively minor disease. Actual losses in yield are minimal, but the disease is on the quarantine lists of many countries and therefore of importance in world grain trade. Control: one spray of Propiconazole (25EC) @ 0.1 % may be given (in seed crop only) at ear head emergence stage. 11/12/2010 48

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Wheat Spindle Streak Virus (WSSV) Spread by the soil-borne Fungus Polymyxa graminis Control Use resistant varieties. Damage is usually not severe, especially when temperatures stay above65 F. 11/12/2010 49

Plant Protection Measures:

Plant Protection Measures Replace with new resistant varieties for rust resistance Spray the crop (susceptible varieties only) with Propiconazole 25 EC (Tilt 25 EC) @ 0.1% at yellow rust initiation . This spray will also help in control of powdery mildew and Karnal bunt diseases. Seed treatment with Trichoderma viride @ 4 g / Kg seed in combination with Carboxin 75 WP ( Vitavax 75 WP) @ 1.25 g / Kg seed or Tebuconazole 2 DS ( Raxil 2 DS) @ 1.0 g / Kg seed . For managing cereal cyst nematode (CCN) in dry belt of northern Rajasthan CCN resistant wheat variety - Raj MR-1 11/12/2010 50

Wheat Insect Pests:

Wheat Insect Pests Aphids Russian aphid ( Diuraphis noxia ) Russian wheat aphids damage small grains by injecting toxic saliva into the leaves and by sucking sap from the leaves.  Yield losses of 50 per cent or more have been attributed to Russian wheat aphids. The feeding of Schizaphis graminin is especially damaging, resulting in the development of necrotic areas sometimes accompanied by purpling and rolling of the infested leaves. The feeding of Diuraphis noxis produces long white stripes on the leaves , leaf rolling, postrate growth habit, and sterile heads Control :. foliar spray of Imidacloprid 200SL @20g a.i ./ha on border rows at the start of the aphid colonization be given Resistant varieties : Halt, Akron ( Ankor ), Lamar (Prowers99), TAM107 (Prairie Red) ,Yuma ( Yumar ) and Stanton. 11/12/2010 51

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Wheat midge Damage : midge is a seed feeder and infests a wheat plant during heading through early flowering Crop injury is caused only by the larval stage. After hatching, wheat midge larvae crawl down to feed on the developing wheat kernel. Control: Early planting is the most useful cultural control method. This method is suitable only for hard red spring wheat. Crop rotation : . Planting crops that are not susceptible to wheat midge, such as soybean, sunflower, flax, pea, lentil, chickpea, oat or corn, will reduce the reproductive opportunities for wheat midge Use of Resistant Varieties : A highly effective resistance trait called Sm1 which reduces survival of early instar wheat midge. Chemical: insecticides are not effective in controlling older wheat midge larvae, which are protected within the glumes as they feed on the developing kernels Organophosphate insecticides with the active ingredient chlorpyrifos can kill eggs. 11/12/2010 52

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Hessian Fly ( Mayetiola destructor ) Damage : Hard red spring wheat infested in the spring and early summer will take on a dark bluish-green color and become distinctly thickened and stunted. Control: Resistant variety : Guard released by South Dakota in 1983) Crop rotation : oat,corn,sunflower Tillage : Moldboard plowing in the fall after the first killing frost. Chemical : phorate 20% granules for both hard red spring wheat and winter wheat and disulfoton 15% granules for winter wheat only. Grasshopper Insects with hind legs adapted for jumping. They include the longhorned grasshoppers, pygmy grasshoppers, and shorthorned grasshoppers, or locusts. They subsist on vegetation and are distributed worldwide wherever vegetation grows. Grasshoppers are 3 to 13 cm (1 to 5 in) long when fully grown. They develop by gradual metamorphosis: The nymph is initially wingless and gradually comes to resemble the adult as it grows through progressive molts. Only the adults can fly. Control: Deep plough during winter will kill eggs Malathion@4-5kg/ha , Sevin @ 1kg active ingredient /ha 11/12/2010 53

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Wheat Stem Sawfly True Army worm ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. Sawfly damage is threefold. First, they cause 10 to 14 percent grain yield reduction by their tunneling activity in the infested stems. Additional loss occurs when sawfly-cut stems fall to the ground and become unharvestable . Control: Resistant varieties: Ernest, Glenman , Leader, Tioga, Fortuna, Lancer CROP ROTATION: non-host crops should be considered in these areas. Tillage: shallow fall tillage will provide up to 90 percent sawfly control CHEMICAL: No effective chemical treatment is available Can be serious pest of wheat when populations reach large numbers. They sometimes start at one portion of the field and devour everything in their path. Treat wheat plant if 6-8 larvae per square foot are present and wheat is still in the milk stage. Once past the milk stage, it can tolerate higher populations and treatment is not usually recommended unless larvae are cutting wheat heads. Control :carbaryl (Sevin XLR Plus 4)@32 - 48 oz/ac, methyl parathion 4 (Methyl 4)@24oz/ac, spinosad (Tracer 4)@1.5-3oz/ac. oz=0.0284 liter 11/12/2010 54

Slide55:

Insect Pest Control Measures Adopt recommended IPM methods Cultural Practices : - Fall deep plowing. - Crop rotation Mechanical control Biological control Chemical control Using insecticides as last option 11/12/2010 55

Determination of physiological maturity in dicoccum wheat (Uppar et al., 1999) :

Determination of physiological maturity in dicoccum wheat ( Uppar et al ., 1999) field experiments were conducted at the main research station , UAS, dharwad during rabi 1997- 98 & 1998- 99 to determine the physiological maturity for getting high quality seed in dicoccum wheat varieties . The results indicated that the dicoccum wheat varieties DDK-1001 , DDK-1009 , DDK-1013 and NP-200 attained physiological maturity at 35 DAA , 35DAA , 40DAA , 45DAA, respectively and at this stage, the seeds had higher dry matter accumulation with maximum germination, root length, shoot length and vigour indices. 11/12/2010 56

Slide57:

Soon after maturity, the seed crop should be harvested to avoid shattering and losses due to uncertain weather. Most suitable stage is grain moisture of 20-25%. Mechanical harvesting is a common practice for seed production fields. Breeder and pre-basic seed are harvested by plot combine and do not constitute many problems. foundation and certified seeds have to be harvested with commercial combine harvesters. The most critical factors to be considered are : i)seed moisture content , ii)mechanical damage iii) cleanliness of equipment . For seed crops, dry weather during ripening and harvesting is essential. Threshing or combine harvesting at 16 to 19 percent moisture content reduces mechanical damage (Thompson, 1979). Harvesting and Threshing 11/12/2010 57

Harvesting &Threshing :

Harvesting &Threshing Harvesting may be done by sickle , Combine or reaper, and later the threshing with stationary thresher. Threshing should be done promptly. Threshing equipment should be cleaned after threshing other wheat varieties. The threshing floor must be thoroughly cleaned to prevent mixtures. Care must be exercised to ensure that laborers do not mix the harvested certified seed with other wheat on the farm. 11/12/2010 58

Processing :

Processing After a seed crop has been harvested, the seed, if necessary, has to be dried and cleaned. For wheat seed cleaning, mainly screens, indented cylinders and air screen cleaner are used Screens separate based on the width and thickness; a width (or diameter) separation is obtained by round screens, while for thickness separation oblong screens are used . Indented cylinders carry out length separation; the indents (cells or pockets) in the cylinder will, depending on their size, lift the seeds, which fit in the indents. Air separates seeds according to their behavior in an air stream (seed density) . The most important characteristic is the weight; light particles (dust, chaff, glumes or empty or partly filled seeds) will be lifted, whereas the heavier seed will fall down through the air stream. 11/12/2010 59

Slide60:

Pre-cleaner It has one air channel to remove light material, one top scalping screen to remove large particles and one bottom grading screen to remove small particles. Dryer If wheat seed is above 11 to 12 percent moisture, it is dried before it goes into bulk storage or processing. Air-screen cleaner This is the basic cleaner, usually with two air channels and, preferably, four screens. The first air channel removes dust and light materials as the seed falls from the feed hopper. The second air channel removes light seed and materials after the seed passes through the last screen. Screen configurations vary considerably, one or two top or scalping screens remove particles larger than the good seed, and one or two bottom or grading screens remove particles smaller than the good seed. Because the average size of wheat seed varies according to the growing conditions, standard screen sizes cannot be recommended.. In general size of Screen aperture for all wheat variety is : Top screen 6.40 mm(R); Bottom screen 2.10 mm(S) 11/12/2010 60

Slide61:

Length separator A length separator is almost always used to clean wheat seed. By using the proper machine configuration, shorter or longer undesirable materials (such as broken grains, weed seeds, oat, barley, etc.) are removed. Broken grains and weed seeds, which are shorter than the good seed, are removed by using cylinders with smaller indents. Larger impurities can be removed by using a cylinder with indents that lift all good seed, but contaminants (wild oats, oats or barley grains and unthreshed glumes) remain in the cylinder. Gravity separator The gravity separator classifies a seed mixture mainly according to density or specific gravity . It can be used to remove unthreshed glumes and soil particles, which have similar sizes to wheat but different weights. Another application is the removal of weevil-infested grains from the seed lot and upgrading seed (in order to improve germination). Further­more, wild oats and some barley may be removed from the wheat seed lots . 11/12/2010 61

Slide62:

Treater Wheat seed should, if necessary, be treated with the appropriate fungicide to protect the seed and seedling after planting. Insecticides are sometimes applied to protect seed in storage and in the soil. Treatments may be applied to protect the seedlings or adult plants against pathogens carried on or in the seed. Dryer In humid and hot climates, seeds may be sealed in vapour -tight plastic bags to maintain viability over longer periods. In such cases, wheat seed moisture content must be below 9 percent, preferably not over 8.5 percent. Usually, a dehumidified, closed-circuit dryer is used after the seed treatment is applied. Bagger- weigher The final step is to weigh the proper amount of seed into the proper kind of bag. Wheat seed bags should be of a size that fits local farmer needs (seed rates and field size). 11/12/2010 62

Seed yield :

Seed yield The average seed yield varies from 30 to 40 q/ha 11/12/2010 63

Storage:

Storage Seed should be harvested when it reaches harvest maturity, dried to a safe moisture content (if necessary), stored under favourable conditions and protected from damage and pests until it can be planted. Immature or damaged seed cannot survive long storage periods. Mechanical injury to seed during harvest or handling makes it more susceptible to deterioration in storage. seed should be properly dried before going into storage and protected from moisture and high relative humidity. Fungi ( Aspergillus and Penicillium ) cause damage to stored seed if seed moisture is high. High storage temperature has a damaging effect on seed. Stores should be designed so that low temperatures are maintained; 11/12/2010 64

Slide65:

In general, stored wheat seed should be kept at moisture content levels below 12 percent and relative humidity should not exceed 50 to 60 percent . The cleaned, bagged seed should be stored in a dry, insect and rodent proof warehouse. Effective rodent control (traps and poison) is essential in all seed stores. A complete programme of exclusion , sanitation and control should be used; Insects should be controlled by a combination of insecticides and fumigants. Use safest fumigants (e.g. Phostoxin ) because some fumigants (e.g. methyl bromide) will reduce germination. Cont…. 11/12/2010 65

Slide66:

Effect of different storage containers on black point incidence, germination and moisture content of wheat seeds ( Malaker et al., 2008) Storage Container % black pointed Seed % black point index Germination % Moisture content(%) Dole 24.11 10.52 68.38 13.76 Earthen pitcher 20.81 9.63 87.3 12.70 Tin container 18.86 9.067 91.18 11.86 Polyethylene bag (700gauge) 18.34 8.29 92.93 11.17 Refrigerator(10 0 C) 17.89 7.68 94.75 10.97 LSD(0.05) 0.11 0.08 0.06 - 0.04 11/12/2010 66

Slide67:

Storage period CXP 2 4 6 8 10 Mean C 1 P 1 92.66 90.09 79.38 58.19 32.14 70.49 C 1 P 2 93.71 91.19 80.61 60.57 39.19 73.05 C 1 P 3 94.00 92.57 81.57 61.52 46.95 75.32 C 2 P 1 93.66 92.04 81.23 62.14 50.14 75.84 C 2 P 2 95.47 93.52 83.28 64.85 57.19 78.86 C 2 P 3 95.57 94.61 85.47 66.95 59.66 80.45 C 3 P 1 93.19 90.47 82.23 60.95 42.85 73.94 C 3 P 2 94.61 92.09 82.80 64.47 56.38 78.07 C 3 P 3 95.57 93.00 83.76 65.76 59.38 79.49 Mean 94.27 92.18 82.26 62.82 49.32 76.17 F-Value * * * * * - S.Em. ± 0.11 0.22 0.29 0.30 0.26 - CD ( 0.05 ) 0.30 0.60 0.81 0.84 0.72 - Germination (%) as influenced by the Seed treatment , containers during storage of wheat . (Rahima Noori, 2008) NS: Non-Significant C 1 : Control P 1 : Cloth bag * : Significant C 2 : Thiram 2g/kg P 2 : Polythene lined cloth bag C 3 : Melathion 2g/kg P 3 : 700 gauge polythene bag 11/12/2010 67

Wheat Storage pest :

Wheat Storage pest RedFlour beetle Grain Borer ( Tribolium castaneum) Granary Weevil Meal Moth warehouse_moth 11/12/2010 68

Slide69:

Lesser grain borer ( Rhizopertha dominica) Angoumois grain moth ( Sitotroga cerealella) ( Oryzaephilus surinamensis) Sawtoothed Grain beetle Rice weevil ( Sitophilus oryzae) 11/12/2010 69

Slide70:

1. Preventive measures: Hygiene or sanitation. Disinfestation of store Legal method 2. Curative measures Non Chemical control measure. Ecological control: Temperature : 14 0 C retards reproduction, below 10 0 C kills insects Seed Moisture : seed stored at 10 % moisture content escape from insect. Availability of oxygen :Decrease in oxygen and increase in CO 2 is lethal to insects. Mechanical Control : Entoleters Probe traps Pitfall traps Pheromone traps Chemical control : Malathione @ 2g/kg of seed. Fumigation : Aluminum phosphide @ 2 tablet of 3g / ton of seed, exposure period 5-7 days Storage pest management 11/12/2010 70

Slide71:

TNAU Probe Traps PITFALL TRAP TWO IN ONE MODEL TNAU AUTOMATIC INSECT REMOVAL BIN 25 kg 100 kg 500 kg 11/12/2010 71

Slide72:

Seed health is an important attribute of quality, and seed used for planting should be free from pests. Seed infection may lead to low germination, reduced field establishment, severe yield loss or a total crop failure In wheat, fungi ( Fusarium spp., Tilletia spp., Drechslera spp., Septoria spp. and Ustilago spp.), bacteria ( Corynebacterium , Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas ) and nematodes ( Anguina tritici ) are the most important seed-borne diseases due to their worldwide distribution and losses they incur in crop production ( Mamluk and van Leur , 1986; Diekmann , 1996a). Chemical seed treatment is one of the efficient and economic plant protection practices and can be used to control both external and internal seed infection. It protects young seedlings or adult plants against attack from seed-borne, soil-borne or airborne pests Meisner et al . (1994) indicated that Vitavax 200 ( Carboxin [37.5 percent] and Thiram [37.5 percent]) is an effective broad spectrum seed treatment fungicide , both for externally and internally seed-borne diseases of wheat. Moreover, pre-harvest foliar application of chemicals can also reduce the internally seed-borne fungi and can be combined with seed treatment to produce healthy seed. Sinclair (1983) cited that foliar spraying of wheat with Benomyl , methyl benzimidazole carbamate or benomyl plus mancozeb reduced F. graminearum , whereas capatafol and mancozeb reduced Septori nodorum . SEED TREATMENT 11/12/2010 72

Slide73:

Stamina™ A New Fungicide It inhibits fungal respiration, depriving the pathogen of energy for growth and development The labeled use rate for Stamina is 0.4 fl oz per 100 lbs of seed. It has shown to have activity against a broad spectrum of wheat and barley pathogens. Stamina in combination with Charter ® Fungicide Seed Treatment provides protection from a broad range of wheat and barley pathogens. Charter (3.1) + Stamina (0.4) BASF,2007 11/12/2010 73

Effect of seed dressing fungicides on plant population , foliar disease infection and yield of wheat ( Meinsner et al., 2001) :

Effect of seed dressing fungicides on plant population , foliar disease infection and yield of wheat ( Meinsner et al ., 2001) Treatment No. of plant population/ 300 seeds % Plant population Germination % Disease Yield (kg/ha) % Increase yield BPLB Carbendazim 50% 184 61.0 85 54 3290 14.8 Vitavax-200 180 60.0 85 64 3253 13.6 Raxil 164 54.6 85 56 3125 8.38 Bavistin 172 57.3 85 55 3052 6.52 Control 140 46.6 85 63 2865 - (BPLB) Bipolaris leaf blight ( Bipolaries sorokiniana) 11/12/2010 74

Germination percentage of wheat seeds as influenced by different seed treatments during storage (CHANNABASANAGOWDA et al., 2008):

Germination percentage of wheat seeds as influenced by different seed treatments during storage (CHANNABASANAGOWDA et al ., 2008) Storage period (months) Treatments 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 T 1 98.67 98.33 96.67 94.33 92.33 91.33 90.67 90.33 88.00 87.67 86.67 (83.43)* (82.63) (79.59) (76.21) (73.92) (72.86) (71.55) (71.86) (69.71) ( 69.42) (68.58) T 2 99.33 98.67 97.33 94.67 92.67 92.33 91.00 90.67 88.33 88.33 87.00 (86.14) (83.43) (81.22) (76.63) (74.27) (74.27) (71.08) (72.20) (70.00) (70.00) (68.85) T3 98.67 97.67 94.33 91.33 90.00 88.33 86.33 83.33 82.67 81.67 81.00 (83.43) (81.22) (76.28) (72.86) (71.55) (70.00) (70.03) (65.88) (65.33) (64.62) (64.14) T4 99.00 97.67 94.67 93.67 91.00 89.00 87.00 84.67 84.33 84.00 84.00 (84.23) (81.22) (76.70) (75.40) (72.53) (72.53) (68.85) (66.92) (66.66) (66.40) (66.40) T5 98.33 98.00 96.00 94.00 92.00 90.37 90.33 90.00 86.33 85.67 85.33 (82.63) (81.84) (78.49) (75.82) (73.56) (73.56) (71.89) (71.58) (68.28) (67.73) (67.46) T6 98.67 97.67 93.00 90.00 89.30 88.00 85.33 83.33 82.00 81.33 79.67 (83.43) (81.22) (74.65) (71.55) (70.89) (69.71) (67.46) (65.88) (64.88) (64.38) (63.17) T7 98.71 98.67 97.67 95.33 93.67 93.33 91.67 91.33 90.67 90.33 90.31 (83.43) (83.43) (80.70) (77.67) (75.40) (75.07) (73.20) (72.86) (72.19) (71.86) (71.86) T8 98.33 98.00 93.33 89.00 87.60 85.00 84.33 83.00 81.33 81.00 77.31 (82.63) (81.84) (75.02) (70.61) (69.36) (67.21) (66.66) (65.63) (64.38) (63.87) (61.36) Mean 98.71 98.08 95.38 92.79 91.07 89.71 88.33 87.08 85.43 85.00 83.92 (83.67) (82.10) (77.83) (74.59) (72.68) (72.68) (70.13) (69.10) (67.68) (67.32) (66.50) S.Em+ 0.97 0.62 0.92 0.53 0.54 0.73 0.41 0.54 0.41 0.41 0.53 CD at 5% NS NS 2.75 1.58 1.62 2.18 1.22 1.62 1.22 1.22 1.58 * Figures in the parenthesis are Arc sine values T 1 - Sweet flag rhizome powder @ 5 g per kg seed T 2 - Sweet flag rhizome powder @ 10 g per kg seed T 3 - NSK powder @ 5.0 g per kg seed T 4 - Neem oil @ 5.0 ml per kg seed T 5 - Nimbicidine @ 5.0 ml per kg seed T 6 - Neem leaf powder @ 5.0 g per kg seed T 7 - Deltamethrin 2.8 EC @ 0.5 ml per kg seed T 8 - Control (no seed treatment) 11/12/2010 75

The effect of organic seed-treatments (skimmed milk, hucket, and flour) on the control of common bunt of wheat (Tilletia tritici and T. laevis) as compared to chemical seed-treatment (Vitavax-200) (Munzer El-Naimi et al.,2000) :

The effect of organic seed-treatments (skimmed milk, hucket, and flour) on the control of common bunt of wheat ( Tilletia tritici and T. laevis ) as compared to chemical seed-treatment (Vitavax-200) ( Munzer El-Naimi et al .,2000) Treatment % of head infection 1994/95 1995/96 1996/97 1997/98 Bau 1 Sebou Bau Sebou Bau Sebou Bau Sebou T. tritici and T. laevis (check) 88.0 a 2 84.5 a 83.4 a 57.0 a 48.7 a 36.5 a 81.6 a 52.6 ab T. tritici and T. laevis + Vitavax-200 2.4 c 0.7 cd 9.5 b 3.1 b 0.0 e 0.9 efg 3.2 fg 1.8 efg T. tritici and T. laevis + skimmed milk 9.7 b 5.6 b 2.1 c 3.0 b 0.7 e 0.4 fg 2.2 gh 4.6 de T. tritici and T. laevis + hucket n.t. 3 n.t. n.t. n.t. 1.7 e 4.3 cd 7.0 ef 6.3 d T. tritici and T. laevis + flour n.t. n.t. n.t. n.t. 12.8 c 10.0 bc 31.9 bc 46.1 abc T. tritici (check) n.t. n.t. 56.3 a 69.2 a 35.9 ab 39.9 a 55.8 ab 63.4 a T. tritici + Vitavax-200 0.9 c 0.0 d 0.7 c 4.2 b 0.3 e 2.6 def 0.6 hi 0.2 g T. tritici + skimmed milk 7.3 b 6.2 b 1.2 c 5.0 b 0.2 e 2.6 def 0.0 i 4.1 de T. tritici + hucket n.t. n.t. n.t. n.t. 0.7 e 2.1 defg 0.6 hi 1.3 efg T. tritici + flour n.t. n.t. n.t. n.t. 4.6 d 21.1 ab 22.3 cd 19.3 c T. laevis (check) n.t. n.t. 68.4 a 43.1 a 21.2 bc 10.8 bc 34.8 abc 20.9 bc T. laevis + Vitavax-200 0.7 c 0.0 d 0.0 c 1.8 b 0.0 e 0.0 g 0.9 hi 1.0 fg T. laevis + skimmed milk 0.8 c 2.8 bc 1.5 c 1.7 b 0.0 e 0.0 g 1.8 gh 0.5 g T. laevis + hucket n.t. n.t. n.t. n.t. 0.9 e 0.0 g 1.7 gh 4.8 def T. laevis + flour n.t. n.t. n.t. n.t. 11.6 c 2.3 def 12.9 de 3.6 def Disinfected seed 0.0 c 0.0 d 1.5 c 0.9 b 0.0 e 0.0 g 0.6 hi 2.2 efg 1 Bau = bread wheat; Sebou = durum wheat. 2 Means followed by the same letter in each column are not significantly different at P = 0 . 05 according to Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. (DMRT); The test was performed on log. transformed values. 3 n . t . = not tested 11/12/2010 76

Opportunities in Hybrid Wheat :

Opportunities in Hybrid Wheat Globally, the efforts on hybrid wheat started in early fifties through CMS system, using different sources of male sterility. Simultaneously efforts were also initiated to identify parents exhibiting harnessable heterosis. Later, in late seventies, research workers from public as well as private organizations have shifted their efforts to the use of gametocide, and a number of gametocides were tested in eighties. In last 10 years significant efforts have been made for commercial exploitation of hybrid wheat through the use of gametocide . Today France and Italy are at the verge of commercial release of such wheat hybrids for grain purposes. 11/12/2010 77

Slide78:

In early 1970's when tall parents were used, the hybrids had excessive biomass production and were too tall. The hybrids produced by hand-pollination on emasculated ears were grown in high input managed fields with few replications hence the real yield potential of commercial hybrids was still questioned. Due to limited number of tests and paucity of information on genotype-environment interaction, commercial hybrids were not always the best. By 1970's male sterility was introduced in double- and semi-dwarf wheats and restorers in semi-dwarf parents which had high combining ability and cross-pollinating ability but produced hybrids with only 10-15% superiority in yield over the best cultivars. High yield is generally accompanied with low protein contents and this has marketing problems Limitations: 11/12/2010 78

Slide79:

As a first step, the production of commercial hybrids can be achieved by developing male sterility either through genetic system such as CMS system or through non-genetic systems like the use of chemical gametocides, temperature treatments, photoperiod reduction, heat and water stresses, etc. In past, hybrid between male sterile wheat x triticale was suggested to synthesize triple hybrids for rapid production of improved triticale. . In 1962, J A Wilson and W M Ross at Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station reported stable cytoplasmic male sterile forms of wheat by crossing hexaploid hard red winter bread wheat to T. timopheevi Zhuk (2n=28). In 1962, Schmidt et al. reported the presence of fertility restorer genes in bread wheat. T. timopheevi cross, that would restore fertility to the cytoplasmic male sterile Bison. Thus, the discoveries of cytoplasmic male sterility and male fertility restoring genes provided the necessary opportunity to develop commercially viable wheat hybrids. Production of Commercial hybrids in Wheat 11/12/2010 79

Tools for hybrid seed production in wheat:

Tools for hybrid seed production in wheat Genic male Strility It has an advantage that Fr genes are not required and it is possible to effectively use a partial diallel technique by using male sterile genes. Chromosomal Male Sterility Driscoll (1972) proposed an XYZ system involving three lines, X, Y and Z, all of which are homozygous for male sterility allele. Theoretically, it is possible to produce unlimited amount of homogeneous male sterile plants after a small initial amount of Z seed is obtained. HmY lines (Islam & Driscoll 1984) and 2-RSY line ( Hossain & Driscoll 1983) are two fertile Y lines useful in producing hybrid wheat. 11/12/2010 80

Slide81:

Chemical Hybridizing Agents or Gametocides The chemicals selectively sterilize the stamen without affecting the normal functioning of the rest of the plant, and thus can be used to produce female parents for hybrid wheat production. Chemical hybridizing agents have many advantages: ( i ) there is no need of special development of sterile and restorer parents (ii) sufficiently large amount of seed can be produced (iii) An extensive testing can be done which avoids losses by ensuing poor cross-pollination. (iv) It saves time needed for transferring male sterility to agronomically useful variety through backcrossing using conventional CMS system which is tedious and time-consuming. New CHAs used for hybrid seed production : Phenyl Cinnoline Carbonylates ,SC1058, SC1271, Gametan , Azetidine-3-carboxylic, Diketones , WL84811,SD 84811, Chlorogenic acid and MON 8164 . 11/12/2010 81

The major problems associated with CHA :

The major problems associated with CHA Reduced Female Fertility. Dose and duration specificity. Genotype specificity. Developmental stage Chronic spry. Fertility impairment . Detrimental side Effects: Negative morphological and reproductive variations Decrease vegetative and reproductive growth and vigour leading to dwarfing and delay in phenological events. More susceptible to insect infestations and fungal infections than the untreated ones. Ethrel in wheat induces extreme dwarfing, poor spike emergence and high flower sterility, Phytotoxicity and Health Hazards: The chemicals like dalapon , maleic hydrazide , RH-531, RH-532 and RH-2956 are phytotoxic , thereby inhibiting growth, delay maturity . Since such chemicals are accumulated in the treated plants and their seed, they are dangerous for human consumption, such as RH-531 and RH-532 ( Rajendra & Bates, 1981). 11/12/2010 82

Application Stage of Different CHA :

Application Stage of Different CHA Gametocides Reference Application Stage Ethephon Rowel and Miller (1974) Law and Stoskopf ( 1973) 41 -51 Zadocks , Appearance of penultimate leaf DPX-3778 Batch (1978) 41- 49 Zadock s A-3-C Dixon and Messager (1087) 45-51 Zadocks RH-0007 Chia and Ruminski ( 1991) 6.5 – 7.5 Feekes ( 1941) Benzoic acids Bucholtz ( 1988) 40 – 60 mm spike length SC-2053 Wong, Blouet , and Guckert (1995) 7 – 20 mm spike length 11/12/2010 83 Marjit S Basra. 2002

Slide84:

Pollination treatments CHA treatments Mean D0 D1 D2 DFFO 0 42.5 ± 6.6 51.1 ± 13.2 47.1 ± 11.4 46.9 a DFFO 2 40.1 ± 10.9 36.3 ± 9.9 45.1 ± 16.7 40.5 ab DFFO 4 32.1± 10.8 35.9 ± 10.9 36.1 ± 12.1 34.7 b DFFO 7 38.3 ± 14.0 34.0 ± 15.1 30.0 ±9.1 34.1 b DFFO 10 36.1 ± 10.5 33.2 ± 13.7 37.4 ± 14.1 35.6 b DFFO 12 38.3 ± 11.5 33.2 ± 8.9 45.8 ± 13.2 39.1 ab Mean 37.9 37.3 40.2 Wheat pollen germinability (%) on the main stem spike following CHA SC2053 ( Oxocinnoline) treatment (Kathy Streiff et al ., 1997) D0. No CHA was applied. Plants were hand emasculated at heading stage. (control) D1. CHA was sprayed at a dose of 900 g a. i. ha" 1 . D2. CHA was sprayed at a dose of 1300 g a. i.ha -1 . The volume measured at plant level was regulated at the equivalent of 360 liters per hectare and the pressure was set at 3 bars. DFFO= Days after First Flower Opening 11/12/2010 84

F1 Seed Production Efficiency by Using Photoperiod-sensitive Cytoplasmic Male Sterility and Performance of F1 Hybrid Lines in Wheat (Koji Murai, 1998) :

F 1 Seed Production Efficiency by Using Photoperiod-sensitive Cytoplasmic Male Sterility and Performance of F 1 Hybrid Lines in Wheat (Koji Murai , 1998) Photoperiod-sensitive cytoplasmic male sterility (PCMS) caused by Aegilops crassa cytoplasm to common wheat under long day conditions (>15 h light period) has been reported as a new means of producing hybrid wheat. That is a "two-line system". The PCMS line is maintained by self-pollination under short day conditions (<14.5 h light period), and F 1 seeds can beproduced by outcrossing of the PCMS line with a pollinator under long-day conditions. A cross pollination study for producing F 1 seeds was carried out using three PCMS lines and three restorer lines under a long day condition. In the cross pollination study of this investigation, in which female and male parents were planted at a 1:1 row ratio, seed setting rate was estimated at 14-33 %. The pollinators used in this study are cultivars suitable for fall-sowing condition in southern part of Japan. The present results suggest that a male parent taller than the female parent has an advantage in outcrossing . 11/12/2010 85

Results of cross pollination study for producing F1 seeds:

Results of cross pollination study for producing F 1 seeds Combination Flowering date 2 ' Culm length (cm) Male sterility rate(%) Seed setting rate (%) Outcrossing rate (%) Hybrid purity (%) Yield (g/m 2 ) Volume weight ( g/l) 1000- grain weight (g) Germination rate (%) PCMS line 1 Pollinator PCMS Pollinator PCMS Pollinator (c)- N26 x Yutaka 7 8 80 91 85.1 32.6 17.7 53.4 55.3 660 28.9 82.0 “ X Nichirin 8 7 70 67 94.5 16.0 10.4 61.5 20.3 641 30.4 80.0 “ X Danchi 8 9 75 71 83.7 30.2 13.9 46.5 49.9 651 31.9 81.5 (c)- Shi X Yutaka 8 8 73 89 92.1 25.2 17.3 69.1 34.6 634 30.5 77.0 “ X Nichirin 7 7 73 69 93.7 15.1 8.8 58.1 19.4 615 29.6 85.9 “ X Danchi 8 9 75 74 94.0 14.3 8.2 57.5 24.1 618 29.5 83.8 (c) Jun X Yutaka 7 8 71 88 92.9 26.2 19.1 73.4 32.8 631 28.5 83.0 “ X Nichirin 7 7 72 68 94.0 17.9 11.9 67.9 27.6 619 28.5 69.0 “ X Danchi 8 9 74 75 97.0 25.5 22.4 88.3 32.1 631 29.2 76.6 PCMS 3) - - - - * ns ns ns ns * ns ns Pollinatoin 3 - - - - - ** ** ns ** * ns ns PCMSxPolli. 3 ' - - - - - ns ns ns * ns ns ns 1) (c)- N26, (c)- Shi, (c)- Jun: PCMS lines of Norin 26, Shirasagikomugi and Junreikomugi with Aegilops crassa cytoplasm, respectively. 2) Days after July 1. 3) Analysis of variance for each character. * and **: Significantly different at the 5% and 1% levels, respectively. Cont….. 11/12/2010 86

Seed Testing in Wheat :

Seed Testing in Wheat 1 2 11/12/2010 87

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Single–Kernel Characterization System (SKCS) Method 1. A sample of wheat kernels (12 to 16 grams) is prepared by removing broken kernels, weed seeds, and other foreign material. 2. The sample is poured into the access hopper of the single-kernel characterization system instrument. 3. The SKCS instrument analyzes 300 kernels individually and records the results on a computer graph. Results • Wheat kernel characteristics are analyzed for: kernel weight by load cell, kernel diameter and moisture content by electrical current, and kernel hardness by pressure force. • Averages and standard deviations of these parameters are reported as SKCS results in terms of values: kernel weight is expressed in milligrams (mg); kernel diameter is expressed in millimeters (mm); moisture content is expressed as a percentage; and kernel hardness is expressed as an index of –20 to 120. 11/12/2010 88

Minimum Sample Weight for testing wheat Seeds (ISTA, 2007):

Minimum Sample Weight for testing wheat Seeds ( ISTA, 2007) Maximum weight of Seed lot (Kg) Submitted Sample (g) Working Sample (g) Working Sample for Counting of other Species (g) 30,000 1000 120 1000 11/12/2010 89

Germination Test ( ISTA,2007 ) :

Germination Test ( ISTA,2007 ) Objective: To obtain information with respect to the planting value of the seed and to provide results which could be used to compare the value of different seed lots. Procedure : Replications: Four replication of 100 seeds Substrata : TP, BP, S Temperature: 20 0 C RH : 95±1 First Count : at 4 th day Final Count: at 8 th day Dormancy breaking treatment: Preheating (30-35 0 C) First Count Final Count 11/12/2010 90

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Seed moisture content is one of the most important factor influencing seed quality and storability. Therefore, its estimation during seed quality determination is important. Seed moisture content can be expressed either on wet weight basis or on dry weight basis. Procedure : Three Replication of 4 gram seed . Grinding : Course grinding Either LCT (103 0 C for 17h; or HCT (130 0 C) for 2h Use desiccators : 30 – 45 min Calculate moisture content using following formula: W 2 – W 3 Moisture content (%) = -------------- X 100 W 2 – W 1 Seed Moisture Test ISTA,1976 11/12/2010 91

Wheat Varietal Identification :

Wheat Varietal Identification Phenol color reaction Extensively used for identification wheat varieties It is easy, quick and reliable test Pieper(1920) was first to use this test Procedure : Soak 50 seeds in water for 16 hrs Place seeds in Petri dishes on 2 layers of filter paper soaked in 1% phenol solution Petri dishes are immediately covered. Observe after 2 hrs and finally at 4 hrs The varieties could be grouped into : Nil, no reaction, Light brown Brown Dark brown Black 11/12/2010 92

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ELECTROPHORESIS PAGE Electrophoresis has been effectively used to identify the differences in protein banding pattern of the different varieties. The electrophorogram is prepared from endosperm or cotyledon of seed. Such banding pattern can be used in the varietal identification Gliadin of wheat and hordin in barley provided dependable indices for verital verification For evaluating morphological appearances of seed the working sample consists of 4 replication of 100 seeds. 11/12/2010 93

Characterization of wheat varieties by seed storage-protein electrophoresis ( Mohd Shuaib et al., 2007) :

Characterization of wheat varieties by seed storage-protein electrophoresis ( Mohd Shuaib et al ., 2007) Figure 1. Electrophorogram showing banding pattern of wheat proteins and molecular weight marker. 1 = Tatara, 2 =Watan, 3 =Gandam 711, 4 =Bakhtawar-92, 5 =Fakhre-Sarhad, 6 =Bhakkar-01, 7 = Ghaznawy, 8 = Saleem-2000, and 9 = Zakht. Figure 2. Electrophorogram showing banding pattern of wheat proteins and molecular weight marker. 10 = Gandam-2002, 11 = Chudry-97, 12 = Inqilab-91, and 13 =Wafaq-01. varieties Saleem-2000 (8) and Bakhtawar-92 (4) show 100% similarity. 11/12/2010 94

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V1 = Tatara, V2 =Watan, V3 = Gandam 711 , V4 = Bakhtawar-92 , V5 = Fakhre-Sarhad, V6 = Bhakkar-01, V7 = Ghaznawy, V8 = Saleem-2000 , V9 = Zakht, V10 = Gandam-2002, V11 = Chudry-97, V12 = Inqilab-91, and V13 = Wafaq-01. Figure 3. Dendrogram of Thirteen Wheat Varieties Based on SDS-PAGE. 11/12/2010 95

Pre-harvesting Sprouting Test:

Pre-harvesting Sprouting Test 11/12/2010 96

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DETECTION METHODS OF PATHOGEN Direct seed examination Seed Health Testing 11/12/2010 97 Germination test

Detection of Septoria nodorum on Wheat (Triticum aestivum) :

Detection of Septoria nodorum on Wheat ( Triticum aestivum) Treated Seed This method has not been validated for the determination of Septoria nodorum on treated seed. Materials Reference Material: The use of reference cultures or other appropriate material is recommended when ever possible. Media : Malt Agar or Potato Dextrose Agar containing 100 ppm streptomycin sulphate . Sodium hypochlorite solution (1% available chlorine) for seed disinfection. Petri dishes: When sowing density is given by a number of seeds per Petri dish, a diameter of 90 mm is assumed. Incubator: Capable of operating in the range 20 ± 2 ºC. Sample Preparation The test is carried out on a working sample of 400 seeds as described in Section 7.4.1 of the International Rules for Seed Testing. International Rules for Seed Testing ,2008 11/12/2010 98

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Method Pretreatment : 10 minutes in 1% ( avilable chlorine) sodium hypochlorite. 2. Agar method : Malt agar or Potato Dextrose Agar containing 100 ppm streptomycin sulphate . 3. Incubation : 7 days at 20 ºC in darkness. 4. Examination : After 7 days examine each seed by naked eye for slow-growing circular colonies of dense white or cream mycelium that often covers infected seeds. The reverse of the colony is yellow/brown becoming darker with age. Slow growing, finely tufted, white aerial mycelium of Septoria nodorum covering grain in an agar plate test 11/12/2010 99

Detection of Karnal bunt of wheat, caused by Neovossia indica:

Detection of Karnal bunt of wheat, caused by Neovossia indica Method: Sodium hydroxide ( NaOH ) Seed soak. Procedure: a known quantity of wheat seeds are soaked in a flask/beaker containing 500ml of 0.2 percent NaOH solution for 24 h at 20-30 0 C. After 24 h of soaking NaOH is decanted and seeds are thoroughly washed in tap water. Seeds are spread over a blotter paper so to excess water on the surface of seed is absorbed. Later seeds are transferred in to a petridish and examined visually aided with light . The seeds exhibiting jet black shin appearance with hollow or without hollowness are separated and individual seeds are ruptured on a slide in a drop of water and observed for the release of stream of fungal spores under compound microscope The number of seeds releasing stream of fungal spores are counted and as infected seed and the result are reported in percentage. 11/12/2010 100

Detection of Loose Smut of wheat, caused by Ustilago tritici :

Detection of Loose Smut of wheat, caused by Ustilago tritici Method: Embryo count method. Procedure: Soak 2000 seeds in 5% NaOH and 0.02% trypan blue solution(one liter) for 24 h at 25-30 0 C. Pass soaked seed material through 10 mm mesh sieve and retain material in 20 mesh sieve along with showers of tap water. Collect the extracted embryos in beaker and dehydrate embryos in rectified spirit for 5-10 min. The hydrated embryos along with chaff etc are taken in a beaker containing 50 ml lactophenol and add to above beaker 100 ml water, stir it well. Allow to stand for 5 min to settle the chaff at bottom. Collect the floating in beaker containing 25 ml fresh lactophenol and boil the above material for 2 min. Pour embryos in to glass dish and arrange in lines along with some lactophenol and observe the embryos under steriobinacular microscope for the presence of mycelium. Mycelium appears as blue thread like knotted structure in the scutellum portion of the embryo. Total number of embryos and infected embryos are counted and the result are reported in percentage. 11/12/2010 101

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Research Findings 11/12/2010 102

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Treatment Germination (%) z Incubation temperature (C°) 5 10 15 20 Molybdenum deficient Molybdenum (2 x 100mg/l) 64a 80a 49a 1 16b 31b 7b 0 The effect of foliar applications of molybdenum and incubation temperature on the germination of RL4137 seed ( CAIRNS and J.H. KRITZINGER , 1992) z Mean values marked a and b for the molybdenum deficient and molybdenum treatments were significantly different from each other (P = 0.01). Treatment Germination (%) z After ripening period(Days) 0 7 14 21 Molybdenum deficient Molybdenum (2 x 100mg/l) 49a 78a 36a 85a 7b 35b 37b 60b The effect of foliar applications of molybdenum and after ripening period on the germination of RL4137 seed at 15°C ' Mean values marked a and b for the molybdenum deficient and molybdenum treatments were significantly different from each other (F = 0.01). 11/12/2010 103

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Seed treatment No. of grains spike -1 No of spikes m -2 1000-grain weight (g) Grain yield (kg ha -1 ) Harvest index (%) Grain protein content (%) Unsoaked (control) 58.90a 602.62.62b 40.93c 3965c 32.05b 9.95 Water soaked 60.77abc 673.86a 42.68ab 4018c 33.07b 10.22 Soaked in CuSO 4 solution 59.37bc 493.50 41.95bc 3487d 37.64a 10.27 Soaked in ZnSO 4 solution 61.32.ab 666.07a 42.12abc 4236b 31.35b 10.63 Soaked in MnSO 4 solution 62.52a 683.75a 43.76a 4532a 34.23 10.50 Values in a column having the same letter do not differ significantly at 0.05 P (LSD); NS = Non-significant Agro-chemical traits of wheat as affected by soaked seed in different micronutrient solutions ( Shafi Nazir et al .,2000) Grain yield/ ha Harvesting index (H.I.) = --------------------------- X 100 Total biomass /ha 11/12/2010 104

Effect of physical and chemical seed treatments on leaf spot severity of wheat at panicle initiation and flowering stage. (Kabir et al., 2007) :

Effect of physical and chemical seed treatments on leaf spot severity of wheat at panicle initiation and flowering stage. ( Kabir et al ., 2007) Disease severity at panicle initiation stage Disease severity at flowering stage Treatments Flag leaf Penultimate leaf 3rd leaf Average Flag leaf Penultimate leaf 3rd leaf Average Ti 0.15 0.42 1.08 0.55 0.52 1.03 2.09 1.21 T 2 0.07 0.21 0.66 0.31 0.16 0.60 1.28 0.68 T 3 0.02 0.06 0.18 0.09 0.08 0.18 0.54 0.26 T 4 0.01 0.04 0.12 0.05 0.04 0.12 0.42 0.19 T 5 0.06 0.18 0.54 0.26 0.15 0.54 1.18 0.62 T, 0.10 0.31 0.80 0.40 0.24 0.66 1.50 0.80 T 7 0.08 0.25 0.68 0.34 0.16 0.60 1.42 0.72 T 8 0.06 0.18 0.49 0.24 0.10 0.51 1.08 0.56 T 9 0. 07 0.21 0.65 0.31 0.12 0.56 1.40 0.69 Tio 0.06 0.17 0.48 0.24 0.09 0.49 1.06 0.54 LSD(0.01) 0.02 0.01 0.05 0.02 0.02 0.05 0.12 0.02 T1 =Farmer's stored seed (control), T 2 = Apparently healthy seed, T 3 = Farmer's stored seed treated with vitavax-200 @ 0.4%, T 4 = Apparently healthy seed treated with vitavax-200 @ 0.4%, T 5 = Farmer's stored seed washed with water, T 6 = Apparently healthy seed washed with water, T 7 = Farmer's stored seed treated with brine solution @ 2 %, T 8 = Apparently healthy seed treated with brine solution @ 2% , T p= Washed farmer's stored seed treated with brine solution @ 2%, T 10 = Washed apparently healthy seed treated with brine solution @ 2% 11/12/2010 105

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GXP 2 4 6 8 10 Mean G 1 P 1 93.44 91.88 80.55 54.33 41.44 72.33 G 1 P 2 94.44 93.11 82.55 57.88 44.88 74.57 G 1 P 3 94.33 94.00 84.44 59.66 46.11 75.71 G 2 P 1 91.44 89.55 81.11 51.44 37.55 70.22 G 2 P 2 93.00 91.22 81.88 53.22 44.00 72.66 G 2 P 3 93.88 92.44 83.11 55.66 44.88 73.99 G 3 P 1 91.22 88.66 73.22 45.22 25.22 64.71 G 3 P 2 93.11 89.22 75.11 50.22 29.22 67.38 G 3 P 3 92.66 91.88 75.66 52.44 40.88 70.70 G 4 P 1 93.33 90.55 74.55 55.88 40.77 71.02 G 4 P 2 95.00 92.11 75.66 58.33 49.88 74.20 G 4 P 3 95.22 93.55 76.22 59.22 54.22 75.69 G 5 P 1 94.33 91.33 84.22 60.22 40.11 74.04 G 5 P 2 95.00 93.11 85.55 63.33 50.77 77.55 G 5 P 3 95.77 93.77 86.66 64.55 58.88 79.93 G 6 P 1 94.77 92.77 85.44 80.88 53.66 81.50 G 6 P 2 96.00 94.11 87.88 83.44 70.00 86.29 G 6 P 3 97.00 94.55 90.33 83.77 73.66 87.86 G 7 P 1 93.66 91.55 87.55 75.00 53.22 80.20 G 7 P 2 95.66 93.00 87.00 76.66 67.66 84.00 G 7 P 3 96.44 93.55 88.77 77.88 68.66 85.06 Mean 94.27 92.19 82.26 62.82 49.32 76.17 F-Value * NS * * * - S.Em . ± 0.17 - 0.45 0.46 0.40 - CD (=0.05) 0.46 - 1.24 1.28 1.10 - Germination (%) as influenced by the Wheat genotypes and containers during storage . ( Rahima Noori , 2008) G 1 : DWR-225 G 5 : GW-322 G 4 : RAJ-4037 P 1 : Cloth bag G 2 : DWR-162 G 6 : HD-2189 * : Significant P 2 : Polythene lined cloth bag G 3 : RAJ-4083 G 7 : PBW-533 NS: Non-Significant P 3 : 700 gauge polythene bag 11/12/2010 106

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Treatments Growth parameters at 90 DAS Yield parameters No. of ear head per m 2 1000 seed weight (mg) Seed yield (g/m 2 ) Seed yield (kg/ha) Plant height (cm) No. of green leaves No. of tiller / meter row length T 1 - (100:75:50 kg NPK/ha) 86.20 39.20 93.70 159.60 41.87 326.7 2989 T 2 - FYM (12.5 t /ha) 75.27 33.00 81.00 144.60 34.80 243.0 2500 T 3 - Vermicompost (7.6 t/ha) 77.00 33.40 84.10 147.10 35.10 261.9 2608 T 4 - Poultry manure (4.9 t/ha) 78.10 34.00 83.00 148.30 35.20 253.8 2690 T 5 - Glyricidia leaf manure (12.5 t/ha) 76.30 32.50 80.90 146.10 34.40 251.0 2581 T 6 - FYM (50%)+ vermicompost (50%) 84.27 38.07 89.30 155.00 37.86 311.9 2894 T 7 - FYM (50%)+ poultry manure (50%) 85.10 38.80 89.77 157.96 36.60 322.7 2948 T 8 - FYM (50%)+ GLM (50%) 83.20 36.37 87.60 152.10 35.70 283.5 2839 T 9 – Vermic cmpost (50%) + poultry manure(50%) 86.80 40.50 94.60 160.10 42.73 338.9 3043 T 10 -Vermicompost (50%) + GLM (50%) 81.70 35.10 86.40 151.20 35.50 274.1 2708 T 11 -Poultry manure (50%) + GLM (50%) 82.40 37.23 88.10 153.20 36.00 301.1 2771 Mean 81.48 36.20 87.13 152.30 36.90 288.1 2780 S.Em ± 2.70 1.76 2.94 3.34 1.69 14.1 109 CD at 5% 7.99 5.20 8.67 9.86 4.97 41.6 322 Effect of organic manures on growth and yield parameters, yield of wheat ( CHANNABASANAGOWDA et al ., 2008) 11/12/2010 107

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Parameter Radiation dose ( Gy ) 0 100 200 300 400 SEM MGT (day) 8.9 a 6.4 b 5.2 b 5.5 b 5.5 b 19.48 FGP (%) 100 a 100 a 98.7 a 98.7 a 97.7 a 1.17 Root length (cm) 9.8 a 9.5 a 3.7 b 3.4 b 1.9 c 81.37 Root weight (g) 24 a 25 a 12 b 13 b 9 c 334.13 Shoot length (cm) 3.5 a 3.8 a 2.5 b 2.4 b 2.4 b 2.81 Shoot weight (g) 30.5 b 38.1 a 26.1 bc 21.5 c 19.3 c 337.80 Proline content (mg/g FW) 0.93 a 1.36 a 1.71 a 1.52 a - 0.65 Effects of gamma radiation on mean germination time (MGT), final germination percentage (FGP), root and shoot length, root and shoot weight and proline content of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes. ( BORZOUEI et al ., 2010) ( FGP) = Number of germinated seeds after 6 days X 100 Total number of seed MGT= ∑ (ƒχ)/∑ƒ where MGT is mean germination time, f is the number of newly germinated seeds on each day and x in the day of counting. 11/12/2010 108

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Salinity level ( dS -m ) % Seed Sprouted 24 h 36h 72h 96h 0 75± 3 100 100 100 4 30 ± 1.5 100 100 100 8 20± 3 90± 2 98± 2 98± 2 12 15± 1.5 70± 2 76± 2 76± 2 16 0 20± 2 65± 2 65± 2 Effect of different levels of salinity on the percentage of seed sprouting in wheat ( Kanchan ) germination in wheat. ( Begum et al ., 2010) Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Joydebpur 11/12/2010 109

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Details Foundation Registered Certified Isolation (min) in meter 3 3 3 Other varieties 0.05 0.15 0.25 Other species 0.025 0.05 0. 5 Noxious weed - - - Infected plant 0.1 0.2 0.2 Field Standard Standards Foundation Registered Certified Pure seed % 98 98 97 Inert matter % 2 2 3 Other crop seed (Max No./ kg) 5 10 25 Weed seed( Max) No./ kg 10 15 30 Infected seed (max No./kg) - - - Germination (Min %) 85 85 80 Moisture (max) % 12 12 12 Seed Standards Minimum Seed Certification Standards Iraq 11/12/2010 110

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Prescribed Seed standard for seed Certification, Karnataka, 2009 Seed Class Germination % Moisture Pure seed (min) Inert matter % Other crop seed (max) ODV (max) Object-able Weed Seed(max) Foundation Seed 85 12.0 98 2 10 - 10 Certified Seed 85 12.0 98 2 20 - 20 Field Standards Class of Seed Off-type Pollen shading Object-able plant Plant head affected by designated disease Foundation Seed 0.050 - 0.010 0.10 Certified Seed 0.1 - 0.020 0.50 11/12/2010 111

Summary :

Summary Scientist (s) Year Research findings Kathy Streiff et al . 1996 The CHA did not affect the female receptivity neither in duration nor in intensity. For the hybrid seed production, there was an optimal period of five days, if pollination took place during this period, the seed set and test weight was superior. Munzer El- Naimi , et al. 2000 skimmed milk powder, hucket , and wheat flour reduced common bunt infection levels by 96%, 93% and 62%, respectively. In most cases, the effectiveness of the skimmed milk powder and hucket was equal to the chemical seed-treatment. Thus, these organic nutrients offer an effective and environmentally safe alternative to chemical treatments to control bunt of wheat Meinsner et al . 2001 The increase in percent germination (61%) and yield (14.8%) was obtained from wheat seeds treated with Carbendazim 50%. However, the increase of other fungicides and untreated seeds were different. 11/12/2010 112

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Shafi Nazir et al. 2000 Reported that seed treated with 0.1 M MnSO 4 solution produced significantly the highest grain yield of 4532 kg ha -1 on account of significant improvement in various yield components. Water soaked seed though enhanced seedling emergence, root and shoot dry weight, tillers per unit area, grains spike -1 and 1000-grain weight to a considerable extent over unsoaked seed, yet gave significantly lesser yield (4018 kg ha -1 ) than soaked in the solution of ZnSO 4 (4236 kg ha -1 ). Liaqat Ali et al . 2003 observed from their two years data of Rabi 2000–2001 and 2001–2002, that number of productive tillers m 2 , 1000–grain weight and grain yield of wheat increased with the application of 150 kg N ha –1 . Whereas nitrogen @ 175 kg ha –1 resulted in the highest number of grains per spike and maximum plant height was observed at the nitrogen rate of 200 kg ha –1 . Mohd Shuaib 2007 suggested that seed storage protein profiles could be useful markers to study the genetic diversity and classification of adapted cultivars, thereby improving the efficiency of wheat breeding programs in cultivar development especially in developing countries. 11/12/2010 113

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Malaker et al. 2008 revealed that highest seed germination percentage was observed under storage in refrigerator followed by polyethylene bag, tin container and earthen pitcher. The moisture content and black point infection increased with reduction germination upon storage. Prior to storage in April, the seed germination was 95%, which decreased to about 75% at the end of ten months of storage (in January).. Tavakoli Kakhki et al. 2008 According to the results, germination percentage, germination rate, root and shoot length, shoot/root length ratio were affected by seed size and genotypes . It was observed that by increasing seed size and shoot length, seedling growth rate was increased. As a result, it was concluded that seed size and shoot length are two factors that strongly affect seedling growth rate and could be used to evaluate and assess wheat genotypes and its improvement programs. Begum et al. 2010 The results indicated that salinity induced delay and decrease in sprouting percentage through lower water uptake and higher accumulation of Na + and CI - . 11/12/2010 114

Conclusion :

Conclusion Wheat is a high-volume, low-value crop and has been produced primarily by heavily subsidized government seed programmes . The private sector, however, may not focus on wheat seed due to its characteristics (self-pollinating, high-volume and low-profit). To meet the demand for improved seeds of wheat, new improved varieties developed by National Agricultural Research Systems (NARSs) should be multiplied and made available to farmers in the shortest possible time. Appropriate seed production techniques coupled with strict quality control measures ensure that varietal purity and identity is maintained, which is the key foundation of the entire quality seed program. Seed enterprises consider ‘wheat seed’ to be of secondary importance, since it is a self-pollinating crop and the grain can also be used as seed, farmers tend to re-plant their own seed. In last ten years significant efforts have been made for commercial exploitation of hybrid wheat through the use of gametocide and CMS lines. Today France and Italy are at the verge of commercial release of such wheat hybrids for grain purposes. 11/12/2010 115

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