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The Indus Valley is on the border between India, Pakistan and Afghanistan. The main city may have been Mohenjo-Daro but it could have been Harappa. To the West of Mohenjo-Daro are the Highlands. North East of Mohenjo Daro are the Himalayan mountains. Slide 5: When was the Harappan Civilization at its peak in the Indus Valley? The Indus Valley civilization lived in the Valley about 4000 years ago, 2600-1900B.C. It was discovered by numerous scientists and archaeologists in 1921. They set up an excavation to investigate the mysterious ancient ruins. Many different artefacts have been uncovered in the Indus Valleys main cities, Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa. Indus River Valley : Indus River Valley This civilization is still very mysterious to us. We don’t have a lot of information about them The writing has not been translated. Indus Valley Civilization : Indus Valley Civilization Arose 3000 BC Existed AFTER Egypt, Mesopotamia Lasted longer 1500 years Conquered by Aryans from north Indus River civilization : Indus River civilization We do know the cities were sophisticated enough to have brick walls surrounding them for protection against flooding from the Indus River. Indus Economy : Indus Economy Just like the other river valley civilizations, the Indus river valley people were mostly farmers. Traditional economy They did trade with Chinese and with Sumerians (Mesopotamians). Slide 10: 3300 BC 2600 BC 2600- 1800 BC 1800 BC 1922 AD 1948 AD 1973 AD 1980 AD Small villages are established in the area around Mohenjo-Daro. Building of a planned city is begun at Mohenjo-Daro. Mohenjo-Daro is a thriving trade city. Mohenjo-Daro falls into decline and is later abandoned. Mohenjo-Daro’s ruins are found. First attempts to conserve Mohenjo-Daro are made. Plans are approved to preserve Mohenjo-Daro. Mohenjo-Daro becomes a World Heritage Site. Mohenjo-Daro timeline Slide 11: The Civilization in the Indus Valley The people in the Indus valley formed the earliest urban civilization in the sub Indian continent Another name for the Indus valley civilization is the Harappan civilization. Excavations discovered that men and women dressed in colourful robes , the women also wore lipstick! They were very good farmers. The fish in the Indus river were caught by fish hooks and were eaten with most probably bread. They ate animals as well such as sheep, pigs, zebus (a kind of cow) and water buffalo . Slide 12: Why did the Harappan civilization decide to live in the Indus Valley? The Indus Valley people probably settled there because of the Indus River which flows through the valley. It over-flowed every year leaving soil perfect for growing crops in. It could of also been used for transport and food such as fish. The Indus Valley was also well protected by the Himalayan Mountain Range. Streets and Buildings : Streets and Buildings The City Structure The Indus tribe lived in houses just like today. They where built from bricks and cement and must have been very strong because lots of these buildings are still standing today. They had a very complex city structure with one to two floors, to each building. There is a road, which runs through the city, where carts ran down to transport goods. These where pulled by camels, oxen and elephants. The Great Bath : This is the plug of the great bath. This is the great bath today The great bath was a special place in the Indus Valley. It was used for baptizing babies. The bricks were clay to make it waterproof so none of the water could escape. The only way the water could escape was through a drain plug that was built in. The bath is made from tightly fitted bricks which had tar on the inside of the bath. The tar was used as a water proof layer so the people could bath. The Great Bath The Drainage System : The Drainage System There is evidence of very sophisticated drainage systems in the Indus Valley. The drainage systems were so big that a human would have been able to walk through the middle of one. They were also very clever because they used cement and clay bricks to make the drains, which always sloped downhill. There is evidence which shows lots of small footprints in the bricks. This may indicate that children helped to make the bricks. This drain is about 5 meters deep. What are artifacts? : What are artifacts? Slide 17: Pots from The Indus valley Pots & pans have been found in the area. Each of them have had their own decorative design. The pictures are also evidence that they used and had a strong connection with animals. The pots show they were skilled and put a lot of time into making them. Decorated pots was a sign of wealth. The pots were mostly used for storing foods and drink.. Slide 18: Indus valley toys These toy figures are made out of clay . They were for children to play with. These are ceramic sculptures of a small cart with vases and tools pulled by oxen, from Mohenjo-daro. Slide 19: These carts show they had a strong connection with animals because many of the toys feature animals pulling the carts. Some of these animals are: oxen, cows and horses. These are terracotta toy carts from the Harappan period site of Nausharo in Baluchistan I used to enjoy playing with these. Slide 20: Models and Figurines Many archaeologists think that Harappan people used figurines when they prayed. Maybe the Harrapan people worshiped a female goddess. Slide 21: Hundreds of small figurines of people, animals, birds and masks provide clues about peoples daily lives and religious beliefs. . The people in the Indus Valley carved large numbers of figurines of women. These statues differ from those found in many other cultures in attention to jewellery and hairstyles. Seals of the Indus Valley : Seals of the Indus Valley The seals are the key which archaeologists used to realised that the Indus civilization really exists. There was two seals found in 1924 in two different ancient cities six hundred km apart which proved the two cities were linked. The seals were used for part of trade and some seals have their family names carved on. This seal was found seventeen feet and four inches below the ground! This is a unicorn seal found in Morhenjo daro in 1931 and proved they believed in mythical creatures. Slide 23: There were more than 2,000 seals discovered by archaeologists in different ancient Indus cities. We think that the symbols on the seals may have been a way of writing. This seal of a bull is about the size of a large post stamp. Indus valley’s jewellery : Indus valley’s jewellery People of the Indus Valley really loved they're jewellery. We can guess this due to the large amount of jewellery that has been found in the area Each bead in the Indus valley is approximately 2-3 centimetres long. The Indus valley is rich in many metals and worthy stones such as Carnelian, gold, copper, turquoise and other metals/semi precious stones We think this ring is made out of carnelian and a precious stone. Slide 25: The Indus valley’s jewellery is one of the oldest in the world. These are some necklaces and bracelet's from the Indus valley. This is a broach found in the Indus valley. The people of the Indus valley didn’t get the precious materials themselves, they traded with other nearby cities who had originally mined these expensive jewels and stones . They then brought them back to their own civilization and then fashioned them into jewellery. They then took the beautiful jewellery to nearby markets and sold them to the public. The jewellers would display their goods using models which are rather like the modern-day mannequins. Aryan Invasion of India : Aryan Invasion of India Aryans invaded 1750 BC Indus, then Ganges valleys Horse and herding culture Vedas and Caste system Foundation of Hinduism Feudal Kingdoms spread through India ruled by Brahmins (Priests) That concludes Indus River Valley Civilization. : That concludes Indus River Valley Civilization. Get ready for the quiz. Indus River Quiz : Indus River Quiz Why do we know so little of the power structure in the Indus Valley? How did the Indus make a living? In what modern day country are the settlements of the Indus River Valley civilization? Why did the cities have so many walls? How do Indus artifacts demonstrate that the Indus Valley was sophisticated? You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.