advanced parentral drug delivery systems


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ADVANCED PARENTERAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS in clinical disease management : 

ADVANCED PARENTERAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS in clinical disease management -Seminar by: P.SUCHITRA


INTRODUCTION The administration of drugs by other than oral route is called parentral drug delivery system Para=other than & enteral=GIT . The major routes of parentral drug delivery are: •Intramuscular •Subcutaneous •Intravenous


ADVANTAGES It provides rapid onset of action It provides immediate therapeutic action It can be administered accurate dose. It can be given to patients who cannot take oral medication. It minimize the first pass effect. It provides more bioavailability

disadvantages : 

disadvantages It should be administered aseptically It produces pain at the site of injection The administered of drug through wrong route may prove fatal effect Self administration is not possible If pyrogenic preparations lead to very harmful effect. Prolonged action is not attained.




INJECTABLE CONTROLLED DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS 1.Dissolution controlled depot formulations: Rate of drug absorption is controlled by slow dissolution of drug particles The rate of dissolution is given by the equation Q/t=SaDsCs/hd •Formation of salt or complexes with low aqueous solubility Eg:DURACILLIN :penicillin G procaine(low aqueous soluble form) ULTRALENTE:insulin-Zn complex(complexes) •Suspension of macro crystals: Eg: aqueous suspension of testosterone isobutyrate.

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DURACILLIN:long acting penicillin preparation: • Given intramuscularly • High aqueous soluble Na+/K+ salts of penicillin are converted to low aqueous soluble salts. Duration of action-96hrs. Eg: Penicillin G procaine

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ULTRALENTE:long acting insulin preparations: acetate buffer pH5-6 ZnCl2+insulin Zn-insulin complex Water soluble Zn-insulin complex Given as subcutaneous injection Onset of action:4-8hrs Duration of action:36hrs

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2.Adsorption type depot formulations: •Formed by binding of drug molecules to adsorbents. • bound drug unbound/free drug absorption Eg:Vaccine preparations: antigens are bound to highly dispersed Al(OH)3


IMPLANTABLE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS 1.Polymer membrane permeation controlled DDS: Eg: NORPLANT-subcutaneous release of levonorgestrel

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NORPLANT: •Sub-dermal implant •Contraceptive for women •6 implants effective for 6yrs •MOA: suppresses ovulation due to in LH densification of cervical mucous prevents implantation of blastocyst.

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2.Polymer matrix diffusion controlled DDS: Eg: compudose implant-subcutaneous estradiol implant

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3.MEMBRANE MATRIX HYBRID TYPE: •Combination of above 2 approaches •Eg: PORPLANT II: •contraceptive sub dermal 2 implants effective for 4yrs

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1.OSMOTIC PRESSURE ACTIVATED DDS: •Osmotic pressure as the energy source to activate & modulate the delivery of drug •Consists of a layer of osmotically active salt sandwiched between an external component & an internal component •Eg: ALZET OSMOTIC PUMP: •Releases Bleomycin •Used in the treatment of Lewis lung carcinoma. •Effective for 1 week.

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ALZET OSMOTIC PUMP: •External component :rigid ,semi-permeable housing made of cellulosic polymers •Internal component :drug reservoir enclosed by a water and osmotic agent impermeable polyester bag. •Used in treatment of Lewis lung carcinoma.

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2.VAPOR PRESSURE ACTIVATED DDS: •Vapor pressure is used as the power source to activate the controlled release of drug •Eg :INFUSAID INFUSION PUMP -for continuous release of morphine in treatment of terminal cancer pain -for continuous release of heparin in anti coagulant treatment -for continuous release of insulin in treating diabetes

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IMPLANTBLE INSULIN INFUSION PUMP: •Implanted in the iliac fossa •Cannulated into the inferior vena cava or into hepatic portal vein

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