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Smart Card:

Smart Card 李開振 seinlin.cs95g@nctu.edu.tw 許家碩 kyo-haha@yahoo.com.tw Department of Computer Science National Chiao Tung University

Outline 1/2:

Outline 1/2 Introductions ( 許家碩 ) History, Application area, Standardization Types of Cards ( 許家碩 ) Embossed cards, magnetic-stripe cards, Smart Card, Optical Memory Card Physical and Electrical properties ( 許家碩 ) Smart Card Operation System ( 李開振 , 許家碩 ) Design, files management, sequential control, Open platform Smart Card Data Transmission ( 李開振 , 許家碩 ) Data transmission Protocols, message structure (APDU)

Outline 2/2:

Outline 2/2 Smart Card Commands ( 李開振 ) Security Techniques ( 李開振 ) The Smart Card Life Cycle ( 李開振 ) The five phases of the Smart Card life Cycle Smart Card in Payment Systems ( 李開振 ) Payment transactions, Prepaid Memory Card, Electronic Purses Smart Card in Telecommunications ( 李開振 ) GSM, UMTS, Wireless Identification Module, Public Card Phones

Introductions:

Introductions

Introductions - History:

Introductions - History 1950s - The proliferation of plastic cards started in the USA 1970s - It possible to integrate data storage and processing logic on a single silicon chip 1974 - Roland Moreno registered his smart card patents in France 1984 - The French PTT (postal and telecommunications services agency) successfully carried out a field trial with telephone cards

Application area:

Application area Memory Card

Application area:

Application area Microprocessor cards

Application area:

Application area Contactless cards

Standardization :

Standardization ISO TC68/SC6 ISO/IEC JTC1/SC17 ISO/IEC 7816 GSM 11.11 European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI)

Types of Cards:

Types of Cards

Types of Cards:

Types of Cards Embossed Card Magnetic-stripe cards Smart Card

Types of Cards - Embossed Card:

Types of Cards - Embossed Card

Type of Cards - Magnetic-stripe cards :

Type of Cards - Magnetic-stripe cards

Type of Cards - Smart Card:

Type of Cards - Smart Card

PowerPoint Presentation:

Smart Card Microcontrollers processor address and data buses three types of memory (RAM, ROM and EEPROM) Input/Output

Smart Card - Memory:

Smart Card - Memory

Smart Card - Microprocessor :

Smart Card - Microprocessor

Smart Card - Contactless smart card :

Smart Card - Contactless smart card

Types of card - Optical Memory Card :

Types of card - Optical Memory Card ISO/IEC 11 693 and 11 694

Physical and Electrical properties:

Physical and Electrical properties

Physical properties:

Physical properties Physical properties - ID1: external rectangle: width: 85.72 mm, height: 54.03 mm internal rectangle: width: 85.46 mm, height: 53.92 mm

Physical properties:

Physical properties ID000: external rectangle: width: 25.10 mm, height: 15.10 mm internal rectangle: width: 24.90 mm, height: 14.90 mm

Physical properties:

Physical properties ID00: external rectangle: width: 66.10 mm, height: 33.10 mm internal rectangle: width: 65.90 mm, height: 32.90 mm

Smart Card Operation System:

Smart Card Operation System

Smart Card Operation System :

Smart Card Operation System The primary tasks of a smart card operating system Transferring data to and from the smart card Controlling the execution of commands Managing files Managing and executing cryptographic algorithms Managing and executing program code.

Smart Card OS - I/O:

Smart Card OS - I/O I/O manager Protocol state machine Send block Send byte Send bit Receive bit Receive byte Receive block Hardware Data flow

Smart Card OS – Commands processing:

Smart Card OS – Commands processing

Smart Card OS - Filesystem:

Smart Card OS - Filesystem Master File (MF) The root directory of the filesystem Dedicated File (DF) directory files Elementary File (EF) hold the actual user data

Smart Card OS - Filesystem:

Smart Card OS - Filesystem MF EF EF DF DF DF EF EF ... ... ... ...

Filesystem - EF file structure :

Filesystem - EF file structure Transparent file structure Transparent file structure is often referred to as a binary structure. Byte number 0 1 2 3 4 5 …………………………. n Offset Data

Filesystem - EF file structure:

Filesystem - EF file structure Linear Fixed file structure data structure is based on chaining fixed-length records Byte number 0 1 2 3 4 5 n Record Number 1 2 3 4 m

Filesystem - EF file structure:

Filesystem - EF file structure Linear variable file structure each record can have an individually defined length Byte number 0 1 2 3 4 5 n Record Number 1 2 3 4 m

Smart Card Data Transmission :

Smart Card Data Transmission

Smart Card Data Transmission :

Smart Card Data Transmission Answer to Reset (ATR)

Data transmission:

Data transmission Structure of a character for data transmission 3 1 2 4 5 6 7 8 Start bit Parity bit high low t

Data transmission conventions :

Data transmission conventions 3 1 2 4 5 6 7 8 Logic 1 Logic 1 3 1 2 4 5 6 7 8 Logic 0 Logic 1 high high low low (a) (b) t t (a) direct convention, (b) inverse convention

Data transmission Protocols:

Data transmission Protocols Protocol Meaning T=0 Asynchronous, half-duplex, byte oriented [ISO-7816-3] T=1 Asynchronous, half-duplex, block oriented [ISO-7816-3] T=2 Asynchronous, full-duplex, block oriented [ISO-10536] T=3 Full duplex; not yet specified T=4 Asynchronous, half-duplex, byte oriented, extension of T=0, not yet specified T=5 … T=13 Reserved for future use, not yet specified T=14 For national use, not standardized by ISO T=15 Reserved for future use, not yet specified

Message structure (APDU) :

Message structure (APDU) Structure of the command APDU

Message structure (APDU):

Message structure (APDU) Structure of the response APDU

PowerPoint Presentation:

Class Application 0X Standard commands compliant with ISO/IEC 7816-4/7/8 80 Electronic purses compliant with EN 1546-3 8X Application-specific and company-specific commands (private use) 8X Credit cards with chips, compliant with EMV A0 GSM mobile telecommunication system compliant with GSM 11.11

Smart Card Commands :

Smart Card Commands

Smart Card Commands :

Smart Card Commands Case Command data Expected response data 1 No data No data 2 No data Data 3 Data No data 4 Data Data

Smart Card Commands:

Smart Card Commands File selection Command Read and Write Command Search Command File Manipulation Commands Identification Commands Authentication Commands File management Commands

Security Techniques:

Security Techniques

Security Techniques:

Security Techniques User Identification Symmetric unilateral Authentication Asymmetric unilateral Authentication Symmetric mutual Authentication Smart Security Attacks at the social level Attacks at the physical level Attacks at the logical level

User Identification 1/3:

User Identification 1/3

User Identification 2/3:

User Identification 2/3

User Identification 3/3:

User Identification 3/3

Attacks on smart cards 1/2:

Attacks on smart cards 1/2 Attacks at the social level attacks that are primarily directed against people that work with smart cards can only partially be countered by technical measures Attacks at the physical level it is necessary to obtain physical access to the smart card microcontroller hardware can be static or dynamic

Attacks on smart cards 2/2:

Attacks on smart cards 2/2 Attacks at the logical level most known successful attacks on smart cards arise from pure mental reflection or computation classical cryptanalysis , known faults in smart card operating systems and Trojan horses in the smart card application.

Power Analysis Attacks:

Power Analysis Attacks Simple Power Analysis (SPA) is power analysis based on single power generated by an algorithm run on a smart card. Differential Power Analysis (DPA) is a technique where power traces are combined in a statistical manner to obtain information about the algorithm running on the smart card.

Square and Multiply algorithms:

Square and Multiply algorithms

DPA trace with power reference :

DPA trace with power reference

Detached power apply :

Detached power apply

The Smart Card Life Cycle:

The Smart Card Life Cycle

The Smart Card Life Cycle 1/3:

The Smart Card Life Cycle 1/3 Phase 1: Production of the chip and the smart card Designing the chip Generating the smart card operating system Fabricating the chips and modules Producing the card body Embedding the module in the card body

The Smart Card Life Cycle 2/3:

The Smart Card Life Cycle 2/3 Phase 2: Card preparation Completing the smart operating system Phase 3: Application preparation Initializing the applications(s) Personalizing the applications(s), both visually and electrically

The Smart Card Life Cycle 3/3:

The Smart Card Life Cycle 3/3 Phase 4: Card usage Activating the applications Deactivating the applications Phase 5: Termination of card usage Deactivating the applications Deactivating the card

Smart Card in Telecommunications :

Smart Card in Telecommunications

The GSM System:

The GSM System The subscriber identity module (SIM) Security Subscriber identification SIM authentication Data encryption

The GSM System:

The GSM System Data storage Dialing numbers Short messages Mobile telephone settings Subscriber information SIM characterization Managing services and supplementary applications Subscriber administration

SIM in the GSM System:

SIM in the GSM System

File system in SIM 1/2:

File system in SIM 1/2

File system in SIM 2/2:

File system in SIM 2/2

The UMTS System:

The UMTS System Third generation of mobile telecommunications system - Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) Universal Subscriber Identity Module (USIM) UMTS security builds on the security of GSM UMTS uses mutual authentication

Important Standards for USIM:

Important Standards for USIM Standard Title TS 21.111 USIM and IC card requirements TS 31.102 Characteristics of the USIM Application TS 31.110 Numbering system for the telecommunication IC card application TS 31.111 USIM Application Toolkit (USAT) TS 31.121 USIM Application Test Specification TS 31.122 USIM Conformance Test Specification TS 102.221 Physical and Logical Characteristics TS 102.222 Administrative Commands

UMTS Authentication:

UMTS Authentication

Thank You!:

Thank You!

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