The_Atlantic_Slave_Trade

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The Atlantic Slave Trade : 

The Atlantic Slave Trade Chapter 2

The Origin and Rise of the Atlantic Slave Trade : 

The Origin and Rise of the Atlantic Slave Trade The largest forced migration in world history. 10-12 million Africans were shipped across the Atlantic during the 400 year slave trade. 60% were shipped between 1701 and 1810. The average age of the slaves was 15 – 30. The majority were males.

The Origin and Rise of the Atlantic Slave Trade : 

The Origin and Rise of the Atlantic Slave Trade Chattel Slavery A form of slavery in which the enslaved are treated as legal property. Not practiced in Africa.

The Origin and Rise of the Atlantic Slave Trade : 

The Origin and Rise of the Atlantic Slave Trade Why did the African Slave Trade Begin? Western expansionism. Portugal 15th century advances in navigation. Sailed westward into the Atlantic Ocean. Claimed the Azores Islands and Cape Verde Islands. 1432: Prince Henry (the Navigator) pushed for exploration along the west coast of Africa and around the southern tip. 1488: Portugal achieves Henry’s goals.

The Origin and Rise of the Atlantic Slave Trade : 

The Origin and Rise of the Atlantic Slave Trade Portugal (cont). The Portuguese found Africa to be very unfamiliar. They found gold, ivory, pepper, and slaves. When African leaders learned the Portuguese were willing to trade for slaves, the slave trade took off. Many African rulers would not sell their own family (etc). However they did sell their own slaves and prisoners to the Portuguese.

The Origin and Rise of the Atlantic Slave Trade : 

The Origin and Rise of the Atlantic Slave Trade Portugal’s slave trade with Africa was profitable. Spain got involved in the slave trade. April 1492: Queen Isabella authorized 35-yr old Christopher Columbus “to discover certain islands and mainlands in the ocean sea”. Columbus accidently stumbled upon an island he named San Salvador(Holy Savior). Natives used as labor source.

The Origin and Rise of the Atlantic Slave Trade : 

The Origin and Rise of the Atlantic Slave Trade Natives were used: In the fields (sugar). In the mines. Natives who resisted were usually killed in battles with the Spanish. Other natives died from diseases: Influenza Various bacterial infections Smallpox (1518) A few managed to escape.

The Origin and Rise of the Atlantic Slave Trade : 

The Origin and Rise of the Atlantic Slave Trade Death and disease diminished the native labor source. Needed a new labor source since sugar had become a luxury item throughout Europe. Spain looked to the African Slave Trade to fill the demand. The need for additional labor caused the rise of the Atlantic Slave Trade.

The Growth of the Atlantic Slave Trade : 

The Growth of the Atlantic Slave Trade Demand for sugar was on the rise. Sugar plantations spread from the Caribbean islands (ruled by Spain) all the way to Brazil (ruled by the Portuguese). Brazil became the main destination for the majority of slaves during the early years. The demand for African slaves only grew when labor intensive crops such as tobacco, rice, and indigo began to be cultivated in North America.

The Growth of the Atlantic Slave Trade : 

The Growth of the Atlantic Slave Trade 1500s: Spain and Portugal dominated the Atlantic Slave Trade. Both nations granted monopolies over the slave trade to private companies. Spain: the Asiento (or contract). Such private companies were very profitable for Spain and Portugal.

The Growth of the Atlantic Slave Trade : 

The Growth of the Atlantic Slave Trade France, Holland, and England took notice of Spain and Portugal’s profits. Early 1600s: The Dutch drive the Portuguese away from the West African coast. The Dutch became the main European slave-trading nation. West Indies became the main destination for the majority of slaves.

The Growth of the Atlantic Slave Trade : 

The Growth of the Atlantic Slave Trade England and France followed the Dutch. France seized control of several areas in the West Indies.

The Growth of the Atlantic Slave Trade : 

The Growth of the Atlantic Slave Trade England focused on the cultivation of tobacco in Virginia and Maryland. Demand for slaves increased because of: Demand for tobacco. Demand for sugar. By 1713, England was the dominant slave-trading nation.

The Growth of the Atlantic Slave Trade : 

The Growth of the Atlantic Slave Trade Where did England’s tobacco profits go? To fund the Industrial Revolution in England (1700s). Industry began to replace agriculture. As a result, Africa became a market for cheap goods. Creating two triangles of trade.

The Growth of the Atlantic Slave Trade : 

The Growth of the Atlantic Slave Trade Trade Triangle 1: Traders carried English goods to West Africa and traded for slaves. Traders carried the slaves to the West Indies and sold them for sugar. Traders took the sugar (and profits) back to England.

The Growth of the Atlantic Slave Trade : 

The Growth of the Atlantic Slave Trade Trade Triangle 2: Rum from America (N. England) taken to W. Africa and traded for slaves. Slaves taken to W. Indies and traded for sugar. The sugar (and profits) returned to America (N. England) for use in rum production.

The Middle Passage : 

The Middle Passage The voyage of slave ships between the West African coast and the Americas.

The Middle Passage: The Capture : 

The Middle Passage: The Capture Most enslaved through warfare. Raids resulted in hundreds of prisoners. Europeans stayed out of African warfare. However they often supplied the firearms used in attacks and raids. African prisoners were marched to the Western coast of Africa. Sometimes the march could be hundreds of miles long.

The Slave March : 

The Slave March

The Middle Passage: The Capture : 

The Middle Passage: The Capture Arrival at coast: Sent to fortified structures called factories. Factories contained the headquarters of the slave traders and warehouses for their trade goods. Factories contained dungeons or holding pens called barracoons. Slaves were put in these barracoons to await shipment. Families and ethnic groups were split up to reduce the likely hood of rebellion. They were stripped of all of their clothing.

Slave Barracoons : 

Slave Barracoons

Slave Barracoons : 

Slave Barracoons

The Middle Passage: The Capture : 

The Middle Passage: The Capture Captains carefully inspected each captive. Those selected for transport (purchase) were branded on the back or buttocks with the mark of the buyer. Captains avoided prisoners who were sick or had physical defects. Captains wanted healthy slaves who could easily be sold in the Americas.

The Middle Passage: The Journey : 

The Middle Passage: The Journey A dreaded one-way passage. The vast majority of them would never see their homeland, family, or villages again. Some committed suicide rather than face the unknown. “often leap’d out of the canoes, boat and ship, into the sea, and kept under water till they were drowned”

The Middle Passage: The Journey : 

The Middle Passage: The Journey Prisoners were held in barracoons for days, weeks, or even months. Rowed to waiting transport ships.

The Middle Passage: The Journey : 

The Middle Passage: The Journey Once aboard the ships: Packed into wooden shelves (below deck). 6 Feet long by 2 ½ feet high. No personal space. Ships usually overcrowded.

The Middle Passage: The Journey : 

The Middle Passage: The Journey Slave ships (slavers) were filled with human cargo. Left the African coast and sailed for 3 to 6 months. The rocking and tossing knocked the prisoners about so violently. Caused injury.

The Middle Passage: Provisions For The Journey : 

The Middle Passage: Provisions For The Journey Captain and crew had enough food and supplies. Had food and water to provide for prisoners. Ships supplied with African food for prisoners. Financial interest to keep prisoners healthy. Overcrowded ships often meant not enough food for many prisoners. Prisoners fed twice per day. Porridge and stew served in buckets. Ate with provided spoon or with their hands. Food poisoning killed some. Others simply refused to eat.

The Middle Passage: The Horrors Of The Journey : 

The Middle Passage: The Horrors Of The Journey Crews rarely cleaned below deck. Due to filth and smell. Prisoners shared 3 or 4 “toilets”. Suffocating heat (and smell) below deck. One could “smell a slaver five miles down wind”. Olaudah Equiano described it as, “ scene of horror almost inconceivable”. Olaudah Equiano

The Middle Passage: The Horrors Of The Journey : 

The Middle Passage: The Horrors Of The Journey Disease Unsanitary conditions led to disease. Dysentery (the flux) Yellow fever Smallpox measles

The Middle Passage: The Horrors Of The Journey : 

The Middle Passage: The Horrors Of The Journey Death: One out of six died on the Middle Passage. The sick could not get food or water.

The Middle Passage: The Horrors Of The Journey : 

The Middle Passage: The Horrors Of The Journey Cruelty: Debated issue: deliberate cruelty vs. circumstances. Some argue prisoner deaths were caused by: Disease Overcrowding They point out that white servants crossing the Atlantic suffered much the same problems: Disease Overcrowding

The Middle Passage: The Horrors Of The Journey : 

The Middle Passage: The Horrors Of The Journey Cruelty cont… Any crossing of the Atlantic Ocean was dangerous. For example, The “Pilgrims”. Of the 102 passengers: 1 died at sea, 4 died off the shores of New England, half of the crew died, one year later only 52 of the original pilgrims were still alive. Another issue is that of perspective. “cruelty and suffering are, to some degree, historically relative in that practices acceptable in the past are now considered inhuman” (pg. 38).

The Middle Passage: The Horrors Of The Journey : 

The Middle Passage: The Horrors Of The Journey Cruelty cont… The fact that the prisoners were foreigners may have lent to poor treatment. Crew felt little care/concern for how they were treated. However the same crew might have objected if one of their own (European) was treated poorly. Example of cruel treatment: “dancing the slaves” Beatings While some prisoners killed themselves, others refused to be victims and offered resistance.

The Middle Passage: Revolt!! : 

The Middle Passage: Revolt!! As long as the African coast was in view, the possibility of revolt was very real. Many revolts did occur far out at sea. However if they were successful, the prisoners would have had little hope of returning home. Forms of resistance: Suicide Refusing to eat

Slide 44: 

Speculum oris. Metal device used to force rebellious slaves to open their mouths.

The Middle Passage:Arrival In The West Indies : 

The Middle Passage:Arrival In The West Indies As the slave ships neared the coast, the crews prepared the prisoners for the slave market. All but the most rebellious were unchained, allowed to wash themselves with fresh water, shave, and move about the deck freely. Prisoners were required to oil down their bodies to cover up any physical scars or marks left by their capture or time on the ships. They were unloaded and taken to auction.

The Middle Passage:Humans For Sale : 

The Middle Passage:Humans For Sale Examined. Sale of slaves was done by auction. “Scramble” Captain fixed price of slaves in advance. Slaves driven into a corner. Slave buyers rushed in grabbing who they could grab. Buyers usually went for younger slaves.

The Middle Passage:Seasoning : 

The Middle Passage:Seasoning Seasoning was the process “by which newly arrived Africans were broken into slavery in the Americas”. On Islands such as Jamaica and Barbados, planters would divide slaves into three groups: Creoles: Slaves born in the Americas. Old Africans: Slaves who had lived in the Americas for a long period of time. New Africans: Slaves who had just arrived in the Americas.

The Middle Passage:Seasoning : 

The Middle Passage:Seasoning The goal of seasoning was to turn the “New Africans” into “Creoles”. Seasoning was a strict disciplinary process meant to change the behavior and attitude of the slaves and turn them into effective workers. Seasoning was also meant to help “New Africans” adapt to the new climate and food (etc). Many taught to work on sugar plantations. Taught to work so they could be sold in North America.

The Middle Passage:Seasoning : 

The Middle Passage:Seasoning How was seasoning done? New names: Symbolic break with the past. New language: Taught to speak the language they would be required to know once sold. Placed in groups (gangs) based on their abilities. First Gang: best physical condition – hard labor. Second Gang: older men and women – light fieldwork. Third Gang: children – basic errands. Some women/children were assigned domestic duties.

The Middle Passage:Seasoning : 

The Middle Passage:Seasoning “Old Africans” and “Creoles” given the job of training the “New Africans”. Therefore, African “customs often shaped the cooperative labor of slaves in the gangs”. “Old African” and “Creole” overseers were very harsh on the new comers. Slaves the led gangs (drivers) used whips. Stubborn “New Africans” often were assigned to the harshest overseers. “New Africans” lived with their overseers.

The Middle Passage:Seasoning : 

The Middle Passage:Seasoning “Creoles” and “Old Africans” took the overseer positions willingly. Why? Surplus crop could by sold by the overseers to purchase their own freedom, the freedom of their family, or to purchase personal items. “New Africans” did benefit from this. They were taught how to grow their own vegetables and build houses. Gardening skills allowed them to provide extra food for themselves and families. Building skills allowed them to improve their living conditions and make them more valuable.

The End Of The Atlantic Slave Trade : 

The End Of The Atlantic Slave Trade 18th century. Two primary reasons: Religious and moral objections. Evangelical Anglican Church William Wilberforce 1807 and 1811: British Parliament forbids the slave trade. 1833: freedom given to slaves in British Caribbean. 1808: U.S. Congress outlawed the slave trade in America (they did not ban slavery).

The End Of The Atlantic Slave Trade : 

The End Of The Atlantic Slave Trade 18th century. Two primary reasons: Religious and moral objections. Economic Britain’s economy moved towards industry.

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