The Middle Ages : The Middle Ages So what comes to mind when we say “Middle Ages?” Knights! : Knights! Castles! : Castles! Feudal Warfare!!!! : Feudal Warfare!!!! Chivalry- code of honor : Chivalry- code of honor Vikings! : Vikings! Slide 7: Jousting Tournaments The Middle Ages were a dangerous time in Europe : The Middle Ages were a dangerous time in Europe The strong empires of Rome and Greece that protected trade routes and encouraged science and freedom were gone.
Education died out
Only the Christian Church kept education alive in monasteries
Hand copied books Invaders and Raiders make life dangerous : Invaders and Raiders make life dangerous Vikings Huns Neighboring Tribes Invaders and Raiders : Invaders and Raiders Genghis KahnMongolian warrior
A particular problem for the Russians.
Mongols conquered Russia and ruled it for 400 years
Russia has been behind the rest of Europe ever since So Who is Where? : So Who is Where? Angles and Saxons in Britain.
Thus the term “Anglo-Saxon”
Also where we get the term “England”
(from “Angle land”)
Franks in France (well no duh!)
Goths and Visigoths in Italy, Spain and Eastern Europe
Russ in Russia (no kidding)
Slavs in Eastern Europe
A mixture of everybody in Germany Slide 12: Russ Angles and Saxons Note: The Eastern
Roman Empire is
Still going strong Slavs No Strong Central Govt.So how will we be protected? : No Strong Central Govt.So how will we be protected? Lack of central government for protection leads to rise of Feudalism What is Feudalism? : What is Feudalism? Feudalism: “loosely organized system of government in which local lords governed their own lands but owed military service and other support to a greater lord.” Feudalism (political system)So who is in charge? : Feudalism (political system)So who is in charge? The kings had plenty of land; but he could not control it all
So he gave land to lords in exchange for protection, loyalty and $.
Lords then gave their land to knights in exchange for protection, loyalty and $.
Knights let serfs (peasants) work the land and he would protect them.
Serfs got food and shelter.
Thus, each person had rights and responsibilities Higher lords Manor LifeSo where do the people live? : Manor LifeSo where do the people live? In Medieval Europe, people lived on manors
self-sufficient communities consisting of a castle, church, village and surrounding farmlands.
Serfs work land and give part of their crops to the local (land) lord, for letting them farm the land. Slide 17: Common Pasture
(or "Green") Problems with Feudalism : Problems with Feudalism Possible to have allegiances to more than one person
No strong central government
King must ask his lords for knights in time of war
King must ask his lords for money to pay for things
Lords hold most of the power
Lords constantly fighting among themselves. How to Gain / Stay in Power : How to Gain / Stay in Power GET More LAND!!
More land = more crops = more $
How to Get More Land?
Medieval times saw constant fighting
Marry into it
It helps to have friends
Marry off your daughter to secure an alliance Slide 20: OK, but lets get to the stuff you all want to know
Knights in shining armor, Castles, Horses, Warfare, and general mayhem. The Norman Conquest : The Norman Conquest In 1066, England was invaded by Normans (Vikings from modern-day France) The Battle of Hastings
Harold, King of England killed
William of Normandy (William the Conqueror) takes over.
Can YOU win the battle of Hastings? William of Normandy helped make England what it is today and codified feudalism (gave it the force of law). : William of Normandy helped make England what it is today and codified feudalism (gave it the force of law). Slide 24: French was spoken in the English court for the next 200 years.
1066 - William I creates Domesday Book for purposes of fair tax collection.
Great resource for modern historians to learn about Medieval life) Norman ship William of Normandy The Magna Carta : The Magna Carta English King John was a bad king so his nobles forced him to sign it
Limited powers of king.
Signed in 1215
Example of Rule of Law Magna Carta - 1215 : Magna Carta - 1215 No royal official shall take goods from any man without immediate payment.
No free man shall be imprisoned except by the lawful judgment of his equals or by the law of the land.
In future no official shall place a man on trial without producing credible witnesses.
Courts shall be held in a fixed place at a fixed time.
The barons shall elect a House of Lords for the creation of laws.
The English church shall be free.
For a trivial offence, a free man shall be fined only in proportion to the degree of his offence. Due Process of Law