Ancient Rome Part 2

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Ancient Rome : 

Ancient Rome Part 2: The Roman Empire

Introduction : 

Introduction From Republic to Empire-  People right to vote to single Emperor who controlled everything. Republic lasted about 500 years and then switched over to Empire for another 300 years.  Roman senators had a lot of power in Republic then that dwindled as Emperors had more an more power

Julius Caesar : 

Julius Caesar Famous politician, statesman, and general Lived 100 - 44 B.C. Made dictator for life, chief priest, and Commander of army in 45 B.C. March 15, 44 B.C. he was assassinated “Beware the ides of March.” July is named after him

The Roman Empire : 

The Roman Empire Empire: foreign lands ruled over by the Romans Covered most of Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East Engineers and builders followed armies Remains can be found all over Height of power was about 100 A.D.

Ruling the Roman Empire : 

Ruling the Roman Empire Emperor: man who ruled the empire High taxes led to rebellion Put down by army which was sometimes led by the Emperor Augustus Caesar: first Roman Emperor 27 B.C.

The Roman Army : 

The Roman Army Strong and Determined Largely responsible for the success of the empire Army’s conquering led to expansion

The Roman Army : 

The Roman Army Legion: main fighting unit Infantry: foot soldiers Cavalry: horse soldiers Artillery: soldiers in charge of large weapons

The Roman Army : 

The Roman Army Legionary joined at age 18 and served for 20 years Was given land in distant part of the Empire after serving Auxiliaries: legions made up of foreigners Archers from Crete

Battle : 

Battle Soldier’s pack weighed 35 kg Held 2 weeks rations, tools, etc. Wore tunic, metal breastplate, helmet made of bronze/iron, and thick leather sandals Weapons included Half-meter long double-edged sword, 2 meter long javelin, shield

Religion in Ancient Rome : 

Religion in Ancient Rome Pagan temples all over empire Polytheism: belief in many gods and goddesses Each honored with their own temples Temple of Jupiter (Father of the Gods) most important Via Sacra led there People also had alters in their homes

Pantheon : 

Pantheon Built in 27 B.C Dedicated to all of the gods Well-preserved Michelangelo used it as inspiration for other buildings like St. Peter’s Basilica

Funerals : 

Funerals Believed in life after death Coin put in mouth to pay for ferry across River Styx into heaven Poor were buried Rich were cremated Emperor worship: declared gods after death Later some declared themselves gods while still living

Christianity : 

Christianity Came to Rome from Jerusalem Jesus was early Jewish prophet and after his death by the Romans, and believed resurrection by his followers, his disciples began spreading Christianity Paul the Apostle was a Roman citizen and became a leading missionary

Age of Martyrs : 

Age of Martyrs Practiced religion in secret to avoid persecution Catacombs: burial grounds and hiding places of early Christians Jews and Christians buried their dead instead of cremating them Include tombs of at least 11 early popes and chapel of the Sacraments

Roman Empire becomes Christian : 

Roman Empire becomes Christian Had to practice in secret for 300 years Converts were poor people at first Rich people later on, who sometimes held masses in their homes Churches were often built later on the sites of these houses

Roman Empire becomes Christian : 

Roman Empire becomes Christian Constantine the Great: first Emperor to convert Gave religious freedom to Christians in 312 A.D. after winning a battle supposedly due to God’s intervention The Empire weakened as Christianity grew stronger

End of the Roman Empire : 

End of the Roman Empire From 300 A.D. on Rome faced attacks from outside the empire Had grown lazy due to luxurious lifestyle No longer able to compete with so many ruthless, warlike groups attacking them

End of the Roman Empire : 

End of the Roman Empire Germanic tribes like the Goths, Vandals, Franks, Burgundians, and Lombards attacked in Central Europe| Anglos, Saxons, and Jutes attacked and captured Britain Led by Attila, the Huns came from Central Asia in 400 A.D.

End of the Roman Empire : 

End of the Roman Empire Romans considered them “barbarians” because they lacked signs of civilized living From 250 A.D. on, the Empire’s borders were attacked In 410 A.D., the city of Rome fell to the Goths plundered and burned

End of the Roman Empire : 

End of the Roman Empire Rome had been conquered for the first time in 800 years Over the next 200 years, tribes set up kingdoms in different parts of what had been the great Roman Empire Formed much of what is modern Europe