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Release the drug for prolong period of time. Better efficacy. Reduces repeated administration of drug. Improved patient compliance. Loss of drug as compared to conventional is very less. Disadvantages: : Disadvantages: Dosage form cannot be terminated during emergency. Interference with vision. Difficulty in placement & removal. Occasional loss during sleep or while rubbing eyes. Factors Affecting Intraocular Bioavailability: : Factors Affecting Intraocular Bioavailability: Inflow & Outflow of Lacrimal fluids. Efficient naso-lacrimal drainage. Interaction of drug with proteins of Lacrimal fluid. Dilution with tears. Absorption of drug into various ocular tissues. Ophthalmic Inserts: : Ophthalmic Inserts: Sterile preparations. Solid or Semisolid in nature. Placed in lower phoenix. Composed of Polymeric vehicle containing drug. Desired Criteria For Control Release Ocular Inserts: : Desired Criteria For Control Release Ocular Inserts: Types Of Ocular Control Release System: : Types Of Ocular Control Release System: A) Non-Erodible : : A) Non-Erodible : 1) Ocusert: Developed by Alza Corporation Flat, flexible, elliptical device. Release Rate: 20-40mg/hr for 7day OCUSERTS: : OCUSERTS: MARKETED PRODUCTS: : MARKETED PRODUCTS: 2) Contact Lens : : 2) Contact Lens : Presoaked Hydrophilic lens. Drug Release : within 1st 30 Min. Alternate approach : incorporate drug either as soln or suspension of solid monomer mixture. Release rate is up to : 180 hr. Used to aid corneal wound healings. CONTACT LENS: : CONTACT LENS: Marketed products: : Marketed products: B) Erodible Inserts: : B) Erodible Inserts: 1) Lacrisert: Sterile, Rod Shaped device. Composition: HPC without preservative. Weight:5mg, Dimension: Diameter:12.7mm, Length:3.5mm Use:- Dry eye treatment, Keratitis Sicca. Lacriserts: : Lacriserts: Marketed products: : Marketed products: 2.) SODI: Soluble Ocular Drug Insert. : 2.) SODI: Soluble Ocular Drug Insert. Small oval shaped water soluble device. Composition : Acrylamide, Vinyl Pyrolidone, Ethylacrylate. Weight 15-16 mg. In 10-15 sec Softens; In 10-15 min. turns in Viscous Liquids; After 30-60min. becomes Polymeric Solution. Advantages of sodi: : Advantages of sodi: Single SODI application: replaces 4-12 eye drops Instillation or 3-6 application of Ointments. Once a day treatment of Glaucoma & Trachoma. or 3-6 application of Ointments. 3) minidisc: : 3) minidisc: It is made up of contoured disc with Convex front & Concave back surface in contact with eye ball. 4-5mm in diameter. Composition : Silicon based polymer. Hydrophilic or Hydrophobic. Drug release from 170 hr. C) Nanoparticles: : C) Nanoparticles: For water soluble drugs. Size:10-1000nm Drug is Dispersed, Encapsulated, or Absorbed Produced by Emulsion Polymerization. Polymer used are Biodegradable. Slide 23: Nanoparticles are subdivided into two groups. 1)Nanospheres 2)Nanocapsules Nanospheres are small solid monolithic spheres constituted of a dense solid polymeric network. Nanocapsules are small reservoirs consisting of a central cavity surrounded by a polymeric membrane. Nanocapsule & nanosphere: : Nanocapsule & nanosphere: D) Liposome: : D) Liposome: Biodegradable, Non-toxic in nature. Vesicle composed of lipid membrane enclosed in an aqueous volume. Formed when matrix of phospholipids is agitated in aqueous medium to disperse two phase. Slide 26: Hydrophilic Hydrophobic Liposome: Advances in ocular drug delivery system: : Advances in ocular drug delivery system: 1.) Ophthalmic gel for pilocarpine: Poloxamer 407 (low viscosity, optical clarity, mucomimetic property) 2.) Ophthalmic prodrug: Dipivalyl epinephrine (Dipivefrin) Lipophilic increase in corneal absorption Esterase within cornea and aqueous humor References: : References: N. K. Jain, “Advances in Controlled & Novel Drug Delivery”, CBS Publication & distributor, New Delhi, pg No. – 82-99. Chien Y.W., “Novel Drug Delivery System”, second edition, pg no. – 269-300. http://www.pharmainfo.net/reviews/recent-advances-ophthalmic-drug-delivery-system. You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.