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Improves bioavailability. Release the drug for prolong period of time. Better efficacy. Reduces repeated administration of drug. Improved patient compliance. Loss of drug as compared to conventional is very less. Disadvantages: : Disadvantages: Dosage form cannot be terminated during emergency. Interference with vision. Difficulty in placement & removal. Occasional loss during sleep or while rubbing eyes. Factors Affecting Intraocular Bioavailability: : Factors Affecting Intraocular Bioavailability: Inflow & Outflow of Lacrimal fluids. Efficient naso-lacrimal drainage. Interaction of drug with proteins of Lacrimal fluid. Dilution with tears. Absorption of drug into various ocular tissues. Ophthalmic Inserts: : Ophthalmic Inserts: Sterile preparations. Solid or Semisolid in nature. Placed in lower phoenix. Composed of Polymeric vehicle containing drug. Desired Criteria For Control Release Ocular Inserts: : Desired Criteria For Control Release Ocular Inserts: Types Of Ocular Control Release System: : Types Of Ocular Control Release System: A) Non-Erodible : : A) Non-Erodible : 1) Ocusert: Developed by Alza Corporation Flat, flexible, elliptical device. Release Rate: 20-40mg/hr for 7day OCUSERTS: : OCUSERTS: MARKETED PRODUCTS: : MARKETED PRODUCTS: 2) Contact Lens : : 2) Contact Lens : Presoaked Hydrophilic lens. Drug Release : within 1st 30 Min. Alternate approach : incorporate drug either as soln or suspension of solid monomer mixture. Release rate is up to : 180 hr. Used to aid corneal wound healings. CONTACT LENS: : CONTACT LENS: Marketed products: : Marketed products: B) Erodible Inserts: : B) Erodible Inserts: 1) Lacrisert: Sterile, Rod Shaped device. Composition: HPC without preservative. Weight:5mg, Dimension: Diameter:12.7mm, Length:3.5mm Use:- Dry eye treatment, Keratitis Sicca. Lacriserts: : Lacriserts: Marketed products: : Marketed products: 2.) SODI: Soluble Ocular Drug Insert. : 2.) SODI: Soluble Ocular Drug Insert. Small oval shaped water soluble device. Composition : Acrylamide, Vinyl Pyrolidone, Ethylacrylate. Weight 15-16 mg. In 10-15 sec Softens; In 10-15 min. turns in Viscous Liquids; After 30-60min. becomes Polymeric Solution. Advantages of sodi: : Advantages of sodi: Single SODI application: replaces 4-12 eye drops Instillation or 3-6 application of Ointments. Once a day treatment of Glaucoma & Trachoma. or 3-6 application of Ointments. 3) minidisc: : 3) minidisc: It is made up of contoured disc with Convex front & Concave back surface in contact with eye ball. 4-5mm in diameter. Composition : Silicon based polymer. Hydrophilic or Hydrophobic. Drug release from 170 hr. C) Nanoparticles: : C) Nanoparticles: For water soluble drugs. Size:10-1000nm Drug is Dispersed, Encapsulated, or Absorbed Produced by Emulsion Polymerization. Polymer used are Biodegradable. Slide 23: Nanoparticles are subdivided into two groups. 1)Nanospheres 2)Nanocapsules Nanospheres are small solid monolithic spheres constituted of a dense solid polymeric network. Nanocapsules are small reservoirs consisting of a central cavity surrounded by a polymeric membrane. Nanocapsule & nanosphere: : Nanocapsule & nanosphere: D) Liposome: : D) Liposome: Biodegradable, Non-toxic in nature. Vesicle composed of lipid membrane enclosed in an aqueous volume. Formed when matrix of phospholipids is agitated in aqueous medium to disperse two phase. Slide 26: Hydrophilic Hydrophobic Liposome: Advances in ocular drug delivery system: : Advances in ocular drug delivery system: 1.) Ophthalmic gel for pilocarpine: Poloxamer 407 (low viscosity, optical clarity, mucomimetic property) 2.) Ophthalmic prodrug: Dipivalyl epinephrine (Dipivefrin) Lipophilic increase in corneal absorption Esterase within cornea and aqueous humor References: : References: N. K. Jain, “Advances in Controlled & Novel Drug Delivery”, CBS Publication & distributor, New Delhi, pg No. – 82-99. Chien Y.W., “Novel Drug Delivery System”, second edition, pg no. – 269-300. http://www.pharmainfo.net/reviews/recent-advances-ophthalmic-drug-delivery-system. You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.