4. Becoming a World Power & World War I

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Becoming a World Power:

With Mr. Luzadder 5th Grade Plain Elementary Simpsonville, South Carolina Becoming a World Power

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The Spanish American War:

3 Becoming a World Power The Spanish American War

Essential Questions:

Essential Questions 4 What caused the Spanish-American War? Becoming a World Power

Spanish American War:

Spanish American War By the 1890s Spain’s only presence in the Western Hemisphere was on the islands of Puerto Rico and Cuba . Many Americans became sympathetic to the cause of the Cubans when they learned that the Spanish were holding numerous Cubans captive on military posts and that they were dying of disease, starvation, and exposure. 5 Becoming a World Power

Spanish American War:

Spanish American War 6 On February 15, 1898, the American battleship USS Maine , which had been sent to Havana, Cuba, to protect Americans, mysteriously exploded and sunk killing 260 sailors. Two New York City newspapers reported that Spain was responsible for the sinking of the battleship. There was never any proof of this, but “Remember the Maine” became the country’s battle cry . Printing stories that are exaggerated or not well researched but that grab people’s attention so that they that will buy a newspaper is known as yellow journalism . Becoming a World Power

Spanish American War:

Spanish American War Becoming a World Power 7 In April of 1898, Congress declared war on Spain. Admiral George Dewey was sent to the Philippines, a Spanish colony , and quickly destroyed Spain’s Pacific fleet. Spain’s ships located in Cuba were destroyed in July when they tried to run an American blockade .

Essential Questions:

Essential Questions 8 Who were the Rough Riders and the Buffalo Soldiers? Becoming a World Power

Spanish American War:

Spanish American War 9 Theodore Roosevelt resigned his position as the Secretary of the Navy and assembled a group of volunteers to fight the Spanish in Cuba. These volunteers, which included former Civil War soldiers and cowboys, were known as the Rough Riders . Becoming a World Power Theodore Roosevelt and some Rough Riders

Spanish American War:

Spanish American War 10 African American cavalries known as the “ Buffalo Soldiers ” joined the Rough Riders. The “Buffalo Soldiers” had been responsible for protecting settlers during the Plains Wars . Becoming a World Power

Spanish American War:

Spanish American War 11 On July 1, 1898, Theodore Roosevelt led the Rough Riders and the “Buffalo Soldiers” against the Spanish in the Battle of San Juan Hill . On July 17, the leader of the Spanish military commander surrendered and the Spanish-American War was essentially over . When the treaty that ended the war was signed, Cuba gained its independence and the United States gained control of Puerto Rico , Guam , and the Philippines . Becoming a World Power

Guam:

Guam 12 The United States formally purchased Guam from Spain for $20 million in 1899. Guam is an island that is about 30 miles long and 4 to 9 miles wide and is located approximately 3,300 miles West of Hawaii. Guam is the western most territory of the United States. Today the population of Guam is about 175,000 people. Its capitol city is Hagatña . Note: In 2009, Greenville’s population was 57,428 and Greenville County’s population was 451,428. Becoming a World Power

Puerto Rico:

Puerto Rico 13 Puerto Rico is an island that is about 110 miles long and 40 miles wide at its widest point. Puerto Rico is located about 1,000 miles southeast of Miami, Florida. In 2010, the population of Puerto Rico 3,725,789. Note: In 2010, South Carolina’s population was 4,625,364. Becoming a World Power

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14 Becoming a World Power Greenville, SC 34° 90 N, 82 ° 22 W Honolulu, Hawaii 21° 30 N, 157° 87 W Manila , Philippines 14º 35 N, 120º 57 E Hagatña,Guam 13º 30 N, 144º 48 E Guam Hawaii Equator International Date Line

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15 Becoming a World Power Puerto Rico Miami 1019 miles

The Panama Canal:

16 Becoming a World Power The Panama Canal

Essential Questions:

Essential Questions 17 Why was the Panama Canal needed and what problems did those who constructed it face ? Becoming a World Power

Panama Canal:

Panama Canal 18 From 1881-1887 a French company had attempted to build a canal through Panama. They were unsuccessful due to the thick rain forests, the countries wetlands, and diseases such as malaria and yellow fever . The Spanish-American War had shown the need for a shorter water passage between the east coast and the west coast of the United States . After helping Panama gain its independence from Colombia in 1903, the United States purchased a 10 mile wide strip of land through which the Panama Canal was built. Becoming a World Power

Panama Canal:

Panama Canal 19 Dr . William Gorgas was hired to find a way to help protect workers from these diseases which were carried by mosquitoes. He tried to limit the mosquito population by pouring oil over the pools of water where mosquitoes laid their eggs. By 1906, the area was thought to be safe enough to bring in workers . Becoming a World Power

Panama Canal:

Panama Canal 20 Over 40,000 men worked on the Panama Canal over a period of seven years. 5,609 died either from disease or accidents . A ship sailing from New York to San Francisco would travel 14,000 miles if it traveled around the southern tip of South America . If the ship traveled through the Panama Canal rather than around Cape Horn the journey would be 6,000 miles long . By the end of the 1800s, the United States had become wealthy and powerful . Becoming a World Power

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21 Becoming a World Power The Panama Canal

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22 Becoming a World Power The Panama Canal

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23 Becoming a World Power The Panama Canal

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24 Becoming a World Power Satellite view of the Panama Canal

Essential Questions:

Essential Questions 25 What lead to Theodore Roosevelt becoming President ? Becoming a World Power

Theodore Roosevelt:

Theodore Roosevelt 26 On September 6, 1901, an anarchist named Leon Czolgosz shot President William McKinley . On September 14 the President died . An anarchist is a person who believes that all forms of government are oppressive and undesirable and should be abolished . Czolgosz’s was executed by electrocution on October 29, 1901. His last words were "I killed the President because he was the enemy of the good people—the good working people. I am not sorry for my crime .” Becoming a World Power

Theodore Roosevelt:

Theodore Roosevelt 27 Following McKinley’s assassination, Theodore Roosevelt became President at the age of 42. He is the youngest person to ever hold the office of President of the United States . Becoming a World Power

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28 Becoming a World Power Theodore Roosevelt

Theodore Roosevelt:

Theodore Roosevelt 29 Far better it is to dare mighty things , to win glorious triumphs even though checkered by failure, than to rank with those timid spirits who neither enjoy nor suffer much because they live in the gray twilight that knows neither victory nor defeat.” --Theodore Roosevelt Becoming a World Power

Theodore Roosevelt:

Theodore Roosevelt 30 1903 President Roosevelt visited conservationist John Muir in the Yosemite wilderness. Muir convinced Roosevelt of the need to preserve the countries forests. In 1906 Roosevelt made Yosemite the first national park. During his presidency, Theodore Roosevelt helped establish five national parks, 18 national monuments, 55 national bird sanctuaries and wildlife refuges, and 150 national forests. Becoming a World Power

Theodore Roosevelt:

Theodore Roosevelt 31 On a hunting trip in Mississippi, Roosevelt had been unsuccessful in killing a bear. Some of those hunting with the President had tracked an old bear for some distance. When the bear had become worn out the hunters were able to tie it to a tree . "Teddy," as the President was known, said, "Spare the bear! I will not shoot a tethered animal!" A cartoon drawn by Clifford Berryman of the Washington Post drew a great deal of attention. Soon toy bears known as “teddy bears” were being sold throughout the country. Becoming a World Power

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32 Becoming a World Power "Drawing the Line in Mississippi”

World War I:

33 Becoming a World Power World War I

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34 nationalism allies isolationism allied powers Archduke Franz Ferdinand Treaty of Versailles central powers trenches Red Baron flame throwers Lusitania machine guns poison gas Woodrow Wilson Arthur Zimmermann propaganda four minute men Liberty Bonds League of Nations torpedo victory garden u-boat draft alliance

Essential Questions:

Essential Questions 35 What led to World War I? Becoming a World Power

World War I:

World War I 36 Nationalism is the love of country and the desire to have one’s country free from control of another . An alliance is an agreement between countries to defend each other if one of them is attacked. Isolationism is a policy in which a country stays out of the disputes and affairs of other nations. At the beginning of World War I the United States claimed to be neutral and declared that they would stay out of the disputes that were taking place in Europe. Becoming a World Power

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37 Becoming a World Power

World War I:

World War I 38 On June 28, 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand , heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, was assassinated by nineteen year old Serbian Gavrilo Princip . Becoming a World Power Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria, and his Wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg one hour before their deaths.

World War I:

World War I 39 This assassination led to a chain reaction that brought about World War I. On July 28, one month after Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia. On July 29, Russia , an ally of Serbia, mobilized its armed forces against Austria-Hungry because Russia considered itself the guardian of the Slavic people of the Balkans. On August 1, Germany , an ally of Austria-Hungary, declared war on Russia. On August 3, Germany declared war on France, an ally of Russia. Becoming a World Power

World War I:

World War I 40 On August 4, Germany invaded Belgium , a neutral country. On August 4, Great Britain, an ally of France, declared war on Germany and Austria-Hungary . On August 6, Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia . On August 18, the United States declared itself neutral. On October 29, Turkey joined the Central Powers. Becoming a World Power

The Roots of War (5.34) :

Becoming a World Power 41 The Roots of War (5.34)

World War I:

World War I 42 On May 7, 1915, a Germany U-boat sank the RMS Lusitania . The ship was carrying 1,265 passengers and a crew of 694. 128 Americans lost their lives. Becoming a World Power

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43 Becoming a World Power

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44 Becoming a World Power

World War I:

World War I 45 On May 23, 1915, Italy declared war on Austria-Hungary. Becoming a World Power

World War I:

World War I 46 On January 16, 1917, Arthur Zimmerman , a German foreign secretary, sent a coded telegram to the German ambassador in Washington D.C. The ambassador in Washington D.C. forwarded the telegram to the German ambassador in Mexico. The telegram instructed the ambassador to propose a military alliance between Germany and Mexico if it appeared that the United States was likely to enter the war . Becoming a World Power

World War I:

World War I 47 FROM 2nd from London # 5747. " We intend to begin on the first of February unrestricted submarine warfare. We shall endeavor in spite of this to keep the United States of America neutral. In the event of this not succeeding, we make Mexico a proposal of alliance on the following basis: make war together, make peace together, generous financial support and an understanding on our part that Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. The settlement in detail is left to you. You will inform the President of the above most secretly as soon as the outbreak of war with the United States of America is certain and add the suggestion that he should, on his own initiative, invite Japan to immediate adherence and at the same time mediate between Japan and ourselves. Please call the President's attention to the fact that the ruthless employment of our submarines now offers the prospect of compelling England in a few months to make peace .“ Signed, ZIMMERMANN Becoming a World Power

World War I:

World War I 48 The Zimmerman telegram was intercepted and decoded by British cryptographers. On March 1, the telegram was made public. Initially it was thought by many to be a forgery, but Americans became outraged when they realized it was genuine. On April 14, Mexican President Carranza formally declined Germany’s proposal, but by then America had already entered the war. Becoming a World Power

World War I:

World War I 49 On April 6, 1917, the United States declared war on Germany. On December 7, 1917, the United States declared war on Austria-Hungary. Becoming a World Power Woodrow Wilson before congress on February 3, 1917

America Joins the Ranks (4.17) :

Becoming a World Power 50 America Joins the Ranks (4.17)

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51 Becoming a World Power European military alliances in 1914 Central Powers , Allied Powers , & Neutral countries

Essential Questions:

Essential Questions 52 How did Americans support the war effort on the home front and the war front? Becoming a World Power

World War I:

World War I 53 Propaganda is a form of communication that is intended to influence the attitudes of a group of people. Propaganda often presents facts selectively and attempts to change people’s opinions by appealing to their emotions. Four minute men were volunteers who agreed to speak for four minutes on topics related to the war effort. With many Americans’ having strong isolationist feelings, the government felt a need for a propaganda campaign to stir support for the war. More than 75,000 citizens served in the Four Minute Men. It is estimated that over 11,000,000 people heard at least one of their speeches during the eighteen month the program existed. Becoming a World Power

World War I:

World War I 54 A Liberty Bond was a war bond that was sold in the United States to support the allied cause in World War I. Through the selling of Liberty Bonds the government raised about 17 billion dollars for the war effort. During World War I, individuals grew many of their own fruits and vegetables in victory gardens , also known as war gardens. The food that they did not eat immediately was preserved so that it could be eaten later. Victory gardens were seen as a patriotic way for citizens to help the war effort on the home front . Victory gardens allowed more food grown by farmers to be made available to those serving in the military. Becoming a World Power

Supporting the War (9.33) :

Becoming a World Power 55 Supporting the War (9.33)

World War I:

World War I 56 World War I weapons: □ Blimps (zeppelins) □ Machine guns □ Bombs □ Poison gas □ Cannons □ Tanks □ Flame throwers □ Torpedoes □ Grenades □ U-boats (submarines ) Becoming a World Power

World War I:

World War I 57 Trench warfare “No man’s land” Becoming a World Power

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58 Becoming a World Power An American Infantryman (doughboy)

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59 Becoming a World Power Australian infantry wearing Small Box Respirators (September 27, 1917).

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60 Becoming a World Power A battleship squadron of the German navy ( Hochseeflotte )

World War I:

World War I 61 Manfred Albrecht Freiherr von Richthofen , better known as the Red Baron , was a German fighter pilot during World War I. He is officially credited with 80 air combat victories, more than any other pilot. He was shot down and killed on April 21, 1918. Controversy surrounds who actually killed Richthofen , although it is widely believed that he was shot by someone on the ground. Becoming a World Power

World War I:

World War I Becoming a World Power 62 The remains of Baron von Richthofen’s Fokker Triplane German Fokker Dr.-1 triplane fighter

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63 Entente Powers (Allied Powers) Population (millions) Military deaths Civilian deaths Total deaths Deaths as % of population Military wounded Australia 4.5 61,928 61,928 1.38% 152,171 Canada 7.2 64,944 2,000 66,944 0.93% 149,732 United Kingdom 45.4 885,138 109,000 994,138 2.19% 1,663,435 France 39.6 1,397,800 300,000 1,697,800 4.29% 4,266,000 Italy 35.6 651,000 589,000 1,240,000 3.48% 953,886 Romania 7.5 250,000 430,000 680,000 9.07% 120,000 Russian Empire 175.1 1,811,000 1,500,000 3,311,000 1.89% 4,950,000 Serbia 4.5 275,000 450,000 725,000 16.11% 133,148 United States 92.0 116,708 757 117,465 0.13% 205,690 Total 806.0 5,711,696 3,674,757 9,386,453 1.19% 12,809,280 Central Powers Population (millions) Military deaths Civilian deaths Total deaths Deaths as % of population Military wounded Austria-Hungary 51.4 1,100,000 467,000 1,567,000 3.05% 3,620,000 Bulgaria v 5.5 87,500 100,000 187,500 3.41% 152,390 German Empire 64.9 2,050,897 426,000 2,476,897 3.82% 4,247,143 Ottoman Empire 21.3 771,844 2,150,000 2,921,844 13.72% 400,000 Total 143.1 4,010,241 3,143,000 7,153,241 5% 8,419,533 Neutral nations Denmark 2.7 722 722 0.03% Norway 2.4 1,892 1,892 0.08% Sweden 5.6 - 877 877 0.02% Grand total 960.0 9,721,937 6,821,248 16,543,185 1.75% 21,228,813 Becoming a World Power

World War I:

World War I Becoming a World Power 64 United States 2% Others 1% Bulgaria 3%

World War I:

World War I Becoming a World Power 65

European Conflict (4.48) :

Becoming a World Power 66 European Conflict (4.48)

World War I:

World War I 67 On November 11, 1918 an armistice with Germany was signed in a railroad car at Compiègne , France. The cease fire took effect on “the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month .” Note: In 1938 , November 11 was declared a legal holiday known as Armistice Day . In 1954, following World War II and the Korean War, Armistice Day was changed to Veterans Day in order to honor veterans of all wars Becoming a World Power

World War I:

World War I 68 On June 28, 1919, the Treaty of Versailles was signed officially ending the war between Germany and the Allied Powers . The treaty forced Germany to accept total responsibility for starting the war, surrender various territories it possessed to other countries, and pay reparations, which many considered excessive, for material damage caused by the war. Germany’s military was to be limited to 100,000 men , and could not possess tanks , heavy artillery, poison-gas, military aircrafts and airships, navy vessels over 100,000 tons, and submarines. Germany signed the treaty under protest . The United States refused to ratify the treaty . Becoming a World Power

World War I:

World War I 69 Following the war, the League of Nations was formed. It was an international organization formed with the intent of resolving conflicts between countries and preventing future wars . Although President Woodrow Wilson had been a strong advocate of the League of Nations, the United States never joined. The League of Nations officially dissolved in 1946. Prior to World War II, World War I was known as The Great War and was often referred to as “the war to end all wars .” Becoming a World Power

The United States Expands:

70 Becoming a World Power The United States Expands

Essential Questions:

Essential Questions 71 How did Alaska and Hawaii become parts of the United States? Becoming a World Power

Alaska:

Alaska 72 In 1867 Russia offered to sell Alaska to the United States. Secretary of State William Seward offered Russia $7.2 million, which came to about two cents an acre. Many began to refer to Alaska as “ Seward’s folly ” and “ Seward’s ice box .” Becoming a World Power

Alaska:

Alaska America soon found out how valuable Alaska really was. In 1880 gold was discovered in an area that became the city of Juneau, Alaska’s state capital. In 1968 oil was discovered in the state at Prudhoe Bay. In 1977 an 800 mile long pipeline was constructed to carry the oil to Valdez, Alaska. Today nearly 85 percent of Alaska’s budget is covered by money the state makes from oil . Alaska is the top producer of wild salmon in the world, and harvests nearly 6 billion pounds of seafood a year. Alaska’s other industries include tourism, timber, mining, and agriculture . 73 Becoming a World Power

Hawaii:

Hawaii 74 Most scholars believed that people discovered the Hawaiian Islands sometime between AD 600 and AD 1000. In 1778 Captain James Cook became the first westerner to land on the islands. Hawaii consists of 137 islands . Becoming a World Power

Hawaii:

Hawaii The first sugar plantation got its start in 1836. In the late 1800s, sugar growers and American businessmen became dissatisfied with Hawaii’s monarchy (government). They finally took matters into their own hands, and led a revolt. Queen Lili`uokalani withdrew from the throne to avoid bloodshed . In 1898 Hawaii is annexed as a territory of the United States, and finally becomes a state in 1959. 75 Becoming a World Power

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