THE ATOM

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KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA NO-2, ISHAPORE Presented by Students of Std. IX , Sec .-B 1)Ausmita Biswas(42) 2) Gargi Biswas(07)

Atomic Structure:

Atomic Structure

THE ATOM:

THE ATOM Nucleus Electron Shell or Orbit

TERMS ASSOCIATED WITH ATOMS:

TERMS ASSOCIATED WITH ATOMS ATOMIC NUMBER MASS NUMBER ISOTOPES ISOBARS

Mass and atomic number:

Mass and atomic number Particle Relative Mass Relative Charge Proton 1 1 Neutron 1 0 Electron 0 -1 He 2 4 MASS NUMBER = number of protons + number of neutrons SYMBOL PROTON NUMBER = number of protons (obviously)

Slide6:

Thomson’s Model of an Atom An atom consists of a positively charged sphere & the electrons are embedded in it. The atom as a whole is electrically Neutral. DRAWBACKS: It didn't explain the neutrality of an atom nor did it explain why atoms undergo reactions.

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Rutherford’s atomic model An atom is mostly empty space, with electrons orbiting a fixed, positively charged nucleus in set, predictable paths. DRAWBACKS: Lack to explain stability of atom Does not say anything about the arrangement of electrons in an atom.

Bohr’s Model:

Bohr’s Model Electrons revolve around the +vely charged nucleus in discrete orbits & while revolving do not radiate energy. MERIT: Useful in estimating the size of atoms, explaining energy levels, how electrons transition between energy levels, etc.

Periodic table of the Elements:

Periodic table of the Elements

The First Twenty Elements:

The First Twenty Elements Hydrogen 1,0,0,0 Helium 2,0,0,0 Lithium 2,1,0,0 Beryllium 2,2,0,0 Boron 2,3,0,0 Carbon 2,4,0,0 Nitrogen 2,5,0,0

First 20 Elements continued:

First 20 Elements continued Oxygen 2,6,0,0 Fluorine 2,7,0,0 Neon 2,8,0,0 Sodium 2,8,1,0 Magnesium 2,8,2,0 Aluminium 2,8,3,0 Silicon 2,8,4,0

First 20 Elements continued:

First 20 Elements continued Phosphorus 2,8,5,0 Sulphur 2,8,6,0 Chlorine 2,8,7,0 Argon 2,8,8,0 Potassium 2,8,8,1 Calcium 2,8,8,2

The Alkali metals:

The Alkali metals Lithium, Sodium and Potassium have one electron in their outer shell and this is why they are found in group one of the periodic table.

The Nobel gases :

The Nobel gases The Nobel gases have full outer shells and they are found in group 0 of the periodic table. Helium, Neon, Argon, Krypton, Xenon and Radon.

The Halogens:

The Halogens Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine and Iodine are the Halogens and they all have seven electrons in their outer shell. This is why they are found in group 7 of the periodic table.

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THANK YOU

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