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CHRISTIAN KOCHAPPU 5 Parvez Malek 8 MRITUNJAY KUMAR SINGH 14 PATEL FAIYAZ 20PowerPoint Presentation: Preface This PowerPoint is mainly created to provide more knowledge about earthquakes to its viewers. Many of us staying in India have experienced or heard of shocks from the ground known as earthquake and seen the divesting impact of it. But we all don’t know its causes in deep and the mitigation efforts. So let’s see this PowerPoint and get updated with it. Note:- The folder in which this file is kept also contain some video files. You are requested to copy and pate them on your desktop till you are viewing this PowerPoint or else some of this slide may go blank . The video will start automatically .Thank you!!!PowerPoint Presentation: Acknowledgment We know the special purpose of this PowerPoint. But it’s not the us who alone created this PowerPoint we need the help of many others who didn’t contribute directly but are a useful resource who helped us to create this powerpoint . We would like to give them a heartily thanks. We would not have been able to complete our project without their help. For pictures our source is www.landslide.usgs.govPowerPoint Presentation: WHAT IS AN EARTHQUAKE? AN EARTHQUAKE IS A SUDDEN REALSE OF ENERGY ACCUMULATED IN DEFORMED ROCKS CAUSING THE GROUND TO TREMBLE OR SHAKEPowerPoint Presentation: GALLERYEARTHQUAKE: EARTHQUAKE An earthquake (also known as a quake , tremor or temblor ) is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves. The seismicity , or seismic activity of an area refers to the frequency, type and size of earthquakes experienced over a period of time.Picture gallery: Picture galleryPowerPoint Presentation: WHAT ACTUALLY HAPPENS IN EARTHQUAKE At the Earth's surface, earthquakes manifest themselves by shaking and sometimes displacement of the ground. When the epicenter of a large earthquake is located offshore, the seabed may be displaced sufficiently to cause a tsunami. Earthquakes can also trigger landslides, and occasionally volcanic activity.PowerPoint Presentation: Source -BBCGeneral information: General information Earthquakes are measured using observations from seismometers. The moment magnitude is the most common scale on which earthquakes larger than approximately 5 are reported for the entire globe. The more numerous earthquakes smaller than magnitude 5 reported by national seismological observatories are measured mostly on the local magnitude scale, also referred to as the Richter scale. These two scales are numerically similar over their range of validity. Magnitude 3 or lower earthquakes are mostly almost imperceptible or weak and magnitude 7 and over potentially cause serious damage over larger areas, depending on their depth. The largest earthquakes in historic times have been of magnitude slightly over 9, although there is no limit to the possible magnitude. The most recent large earthquake of magnitude 9.0 or larger was a 9.0 magnitude earthquake in Japan in 2011 (as of October 2012), and it was the largest Japanese earthquake since records began. Intensity of shaking is measured on the modified Mercalli scale. The shallower an earthquake, the more damage to structures it causes, all else being equal.Naturally occurring earthquakes : Naturally occurring earthquakes Tectonic earthquakes occur anywhere in the earth where there is sufficient stored elastic strain energy to drive fracture propagation along a fault plane. The sides of a fault move past each other smoothly and a seismically only if there are no irregularities or asperities along the fault surface that increase the frictional resistance. Most fault surfaces do have such asperities and this leads to a form of stick-slip behavior. Once the fault has locked, continued relative motion between the plates leads to increasing stress and therefore, stored strain energy in the volume around the fault surface. This continues until the stress has risen sufficiently to break through the asperity, suddenly allowing sliding over the locked portion of the fault, releasing the stored energy. This energy is released as a combination of radiated elastic strain seismic waves, frictional heating of the fault surface, and cracking of the rock, thus causing an earthquake. This process of gradual build-up of strain and stress punctuated by occasional sudden earthquake failure is referred to as the elastic-rebound theoryPowerPoint Presentation: . It is estimated that only 10 percent or less of an earthquake's total energy is radiated as seismic energy. Most of the earthquake's energy is used to power the earthquake fracture growth or is converted into heat generated by friction. Therefore, earthquakes lower the Earth's available elastic potential energy and raise its temperature, though these changes are negligible compared to the conductive and convective flow of heat out from the Earth's deep interior.PowerPoint Presentation: The effects of earthquakes include, but are not limited to, the following: Shaking and ground rupture are the main effects created by earthquakes, principally resulting in more or less severe damage to buildings and other rigid structures. The severity of the local effects depends on the complex combination of the earthquake magnitude, the distance from the epicenter, and the local geological and geomorphological conditions, which may amplify or reduce wave propagation. The ground-shaking is measured by ground acceleration. Effects of earthquakes 1. Shaking and ground rupturePowerPoint Presentation: Earthquakes, along with severe storms, volcanic activity, coastal wave attack, and wildfires, can produce slope instability leading to landslides, a major geological hazard. Landslide danger may persist while emergency personnel are attempting rescue Earthquakes can cause fires by damaging electrical power or gas lines. In the event of water mains rupturing and a loss of pressure, it may also become difficult to stop the spread of a fire once it has started. For example, more deaths in the 1906 San Francisco earthquake were caused by fire than by the earthquake itself. 2. Landslides and avalanches 3. FiresPowerPoint Presentation: Soil liquefaction occurs when, because of the shaking, water-saturated granular material (such as sand) temporarily loses its strength and transforms from a solid to a liquid. Soil liquefaction may cause rigid structures, like buildings and bridges, to tilt or sink into the liquefied deposits. This can be a devastating effect of earthquakes. For example, in the 1964 Alaska earthquake, soil liquefaction caused many buildings to sink into the ground, eventually collapsing upon themselves. 4. Soil liquefactionPowerPoint Presentation: Tsunamis are long-wavelength, long-period sea waves produced by the sudden or abrupt movement of large volumes of water. In the open ocean the distance between wave crests can surpass 100 kilometers (62 mi), and the wave periods can vary from five minutes to one hour. Such tsunamis travel 600-800 kilometers per hour (373–497 miles per hour), depending on water depth. Large waves produced by an earthquake or a submarine landslide can overrun nearby coastal areas in a matter of minutes. Tsunamis can also travel thousands of kilometers across open ocean and wreak destruction on far shores hours after the earthquake that generated them. Ordinarily, subduction earthquakes under magnitude 7.5 on the Richter scale do not cause tsunamis, although some instances of this have been recorded. Most destructive tsunamis are caused by earthquakes of magnitude 7.5 or more. 5. TsunamiPowerPoint Presentation: An earthquake may cause injury and loss of life, road and bridge damage, general property damage (which may or may not be covered by earthquake insurance), and collapse or destabilization (potentially leading to future collapse) of buildings. The aftermath may bring disease, lack of basic necessities, and higher insurance premiums. 6. Human impactsPowerPoint Presentation: LIST OF RECENT EARTHQUAKE Dates Time Location Latitude Longitude deaths Comments Magnitude April 14, 2012 10:57:40 Local Time April 14 Koynanagar , India 17.4°N 73.8°E None Preceded by a 4.0 earthquake in Gujarat 4.9 March 5, 2012 13:09:00 Local Time March 5 New Delhi India 28.808°N 76.772°E >To be determined Earthquake epicentre : Bahadurgarh (New Delhi and NCR) 4.9 September 18, 2011 18:10:48 Local Time September 18 Sikkim India see 2011 Sikkim earthquake 27.723°N 88.064°E >To be determined Earthquake epicentre : Sikkim 6.9 September 7, 2011 11:28:00 Local Time September 7 Delhi NCR India 28.38°N 77.12°E >To be determined Earthquake epicentre: Sonipat, Harayana; Delhi 4.2 December 31, 2007 23:45:00 Local Time September 7 DELHI NCR India >To be determined Earthquake epicentre : October 8, 2005 03:50:38 UTC, 08:50:38 Local Time October 8 Kashmir HimachalPradeshPakistanIndia see 2005 Kashmir earthquake 34.493°N 73.629°E >80,000 95 km (59 mi) NE of Islamabad , Pakistan , 125 km (78 mi) WNW of Srinagar , Kangra , Jammu and Kashmir , India (pop 894,000) 7.6 December 26, 2004 00:58:53 UTC, 07:58:53 Local Time December 26 off west coast northern Sumatra India Sri Lanka Maldives see 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake 3.30°N 95.87°E 283,106 third largest earthquake ever recorded 9.0 to 9.3 January 26, 2001 08:50:00 Local Time January 26 Kutchh see Gujarat earthquake of 2001 23.6N 69.8E 20,000 Epicenter in Kutch, loss of life in Ahmedabad , Kutch and Bhuj 7.6/7.7 Source :- wikipediaPowerPoint Presentation: WARNING Earthquake is a sudden onset hazard and can happen any time of the year, day or night with sudden impact without warning. Extensive research has been conducted in recent decades but there is no accepted method of earthquake prediction. Most of the earthquake prediction that had happened till day have failed. It is therefore a myth when we say earthquake can be predicted. Source:- UN DEVELOPMENT CORPORATIONPowerPoint Presentation: Deadliest earthquakes on record source:-wikipedia Rank Name Date Location Fatalities Magnitude Notes 1 "Shaanxi" January 23, 1556 Shaanxi , China 820,000–830,000 (est.) 8.0 (est.) Estimated death toll in Shaanxi, China. 2 "Haiti" January 12, 2010 Haiti 316,000 (Haitian sources) 50,000–92,000 (non-Haitian sources) 7.0 Estimate June 2010 . 3 " Haiyuan " December 16, 1920 Ningxia – Gansu , China 273,400 7.8 Major fractures, landslides. 4 "Tangshan" July 28, 1976 Hebei , China 242,769 7.0 5 "Antioch" May 21, 526 Antioch , Turkey ( then Byzantine Empire ) 240,000 7.0 (est .) Procopius (II.14.6 ), sources based on John of Ephesus . Cont.PowerPoint Presentation: source:-wikipedia Cont. 6 "Indian Ocean" December 26, 2004 Indian Ocean, Sumatra , Indonesia 230,210 + 9.1–9.3 7 "Aleppo" October 11, 1138 Aleppo , Syria 230,000 Unknown 8 " Damghan " December 22, 856 Damghan , Iran 200,000 (est.) 7.9 (est.) 9 "Ardabil" March 22, 893 Ardabil , Iran 150,000 (est.) Unknown 10 "Great Kantō " September 1, 1923 Kantō region , Japan 142,800 7.9PowerPoint Presentation: source:-wikipedia Property Damages Rank Name Magnitude Property damages 1 2011 Tōhoku earthquake , Japan 9.0 $235 billion 2 1995 Great Hanshin earthquake , Japan 6.9 $100 billion 3 2008 Sichuan earthquake , China 8.0 $75 billion 4 2010 Chile earthquake , Chile 8.8 $15–30 billion 5 1994 Northridge earthquake , United States 6.7 $20 billion 6 2012 Emilia earthquakes , Italy 6.1 (est .) $13.2 billion 7 2011 Christchurch earthquake , New Zealand 6.3 $12 billion 8 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake , United States ~7.0; 6.9-7.1 reported $11 billion 9 921 earthquake , Taiwan 7.6 $10 billion 10 1906 San Francisco earthquake , United States 7.7 to 7.9 (est .) $9.5 billion ($400 million 1906 value)DESTRUCTION CAUSED BY EARTHQUAKE : DESTRUCTION CAUSED BY EARTHQUAKEPowerPoint Presentation: Many methods have been developed for predicting the time and place in which earthquakes will occur. Despite considerable research efforts by seismologists, scientifically reproducible predictions cannot yet be made to a specific day or month. However, for well-understood faults the probability that a segment may rupture during the next few decades can be estimated. Earthquake warning systems have been developed that can provide regional notification of an earthquake in progress, but before the ground surface has begun to move, potentially allowing people within the system's range to seek shelter before the earthquake's impact is felt. PredictionRECENT EARTHQUAKE: RECENT EARTHQUAKEPowerPoint Presentation: Mitigation Measures Mitigation Personal mitigation is mainly about knowing and avoiding unnecessary risks. This includes an assessment of possible risks to personal/family health and to personal property. In a flood plain, in areas of subsidence or landslides home owners may not be aware of a property being exposed to a hazard until it strikes. However, specialists can be hired to conduct risk identification and assessment surveys. Purchase of insurance covering the most prominent identified risks is a common measure. Personal structural mitigation in earthquake prone areas includes installation of an Earthquake Valve to instantly shut off the natural gas supply to a property, seismic retrofits of property and the securing of items inside a building to enhance household seismic safety. The latter may include the mounting of furniture, refrigerators, water heaters and breakables to the walls, and the addition of cabinet latches. In flood prone areas houses can be built on poles/stilts, as in much of southern Asia. In areas prone to prolonged electricity black-outs installation of a generator would be an example of an optimal structural mitigation measure. The construction of storm cellars and fallout shelters are further examples of personal mitigative actions. Mitigation involves Structural and Non-structural measures taken to limit the impact of disasters. Structural mitigation are actions that change the characteristics of a building or its surrounding, examples include shelters, window shutters, clearing forest around the house. Non-structural mitigation on personal level mainly takes the form of insurance or simply moving house to a safer area.PowerPoint Presentation: Preparedness Personal preparedness focuses on preparing equipment and procedures for use when a disaster occurs, i.e., planning. Preparedness measures can take many forms including the construction of shelters, implementation of an emergency communication system, installation of warning devices, creation of back-up life-line services (e.g., power, water, sewage), and rehearsing evacuation plans. Two simple measures can help prepare the individual for sitting out the event or evacuating, as necessary. For evacuation, a disaster supplies kit may be prepared and for sheltering purposes a stockpile of supplies may be created. The preparation of a survival kit such as a "72-hour kit", is often advocated by authorities. These kits may include food, medicine, flashlights, candles and money. Also, putting valuable items in safe area is also recommended. Response The response phase of an emergency may commence with search and rescue but in all cases the focus will quickly turn to fulfilling the basichumanitarian needs of the affected population. This assistance may be provided by national or international agencies and organisations . Effective coordination of disaster assistance is often crucial, particularly when many organizations respond and local emergency manageme agency (LEMA) capacity has been exceeded by the demand or diminished by the disaster itself. On a personal level the response can take the shape either of a shelter in place or an evacuation . In a shelter-in-place scenario, a family would be prepared to fend for themselves in their home for many days without any form of outside support. In an evacuation , a family leaves the area by automobile or other mode of transportation, taking with them the maximum amount of supplies they can carry, possibly including a tent for shelter. If mechanical transportation is not available, evacuation on foot would ideally include carrying at least three days of supplies and rain-tight bedding, a tarpaulin and a bedroll of blankets being the minimum. You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.