Naming Chemical Formulas

Category: Education

Presentation Description

Nomenclature rules for ionic and molecular compounds as well as acids


Presentation Transcript


Nomenclature …is the name given to the “rules for naming compounds” Some have a common name and a chemical name Baking soda = Sodium bicarbonate Table salt = Sodium chloride Vinegar = Acetic Acid

Naming Binary Inorganic Compounds:

Naming Binary Inorganic Compounds Binary compounds – compounds containing only two elements To name a binary compound: Write down the name of the element with the positive oxidation number Add the name of the element with the negative oxidation number Change the ending of the “negative element” to -ide

Name the following…:

Name the following… BaS CaO ZnF 2 AlCl 3 H 2 O Barium sulfide Calcium oxide Zinc fluoride Aluminum chloride Hydrogen oxide (water)

Elements With More Than One Oxidation Number:

Elements With More Than One Oxidation Number We need to specify which oxidation state we’re talking about for some elements (i.e. – tin, iron, copper) Stock system (uses Roman numerals) Indicate positive ion charge - ous vs. – ic system “ ous ” for lower oxidation number “ ic for higher oxidation number

Naming Compounds with Polyatomic Ions:

Naming Compounds with Polyatomic Ions Very similar to naming binary compounds The ending of the polyatomic ion is not changed (ex. Aluminum phosphate – AlPO 4 )

Practice Naming Binary & Ternary Compounds:

Practice Naming Binary & Ternary Compounds Sn(OH) 4 Cr 2 S 3 PbSO 4 MgO Cu(NO 3 ) 2 Hg 2 O 2 Tin(IV) hydroxide Chromium sulfide Lead(II) sulfate Magnesium oxide Copper(II) nitrate Mercury(I) peroxide

Naming Molecular Compounds Using Prefixes:

Naming Molecular Compounds Using Prefixes Used with compounds made of nonmetals Derive subscripts from the prefixes Mono 1 Di 2 Tri 3 Tetra 4 Penta 5 Hexa 6 Hepta 7 Octa 8 Nona 9 Deca 10

Molecular Compound Naming (cont.):

Molecular Compound Naming (cont.) If only one of the first atom, drop the mono- If your prefix and name give you an o-o or a-o combination, drop the first vowel

Practice Naming Molecular Compounds:

Practice Naming Molecular Compounds CO 2 CCl 4 P 2 O 5 SiSe 2 Carbon dioxide Carbon tetrachloride Diphosphorus pentoxide Silicon diselenide

Practice Naming Molecular Compounds:

Practice Naming Molecular Compounds N 2 O 3 SF 2 SO 3 CBr 4 SiF 4 P 2 O 3 Dinitrogen trioxide Sulfur difluoride Sulfur trioxide Carbon tetrabromide Silicon tetrafluoride Diphosphorus trioxide

Naming Acids:

Naming Acids Acids are solutions formed when hydrogen bonds to a negative ion Binary acids  “hydro” prefix, stem from the negative ion, “ic” ending HCl = hydrochloric acid Ternary acids  stem from the negative ion, “ ate ” changes to “ ic ”; “ ite ” changes to “ ous ” + “acid” ending H 2 CO 3 = carbonic acid HNO 3 = nitric acid HClO 3 = chloric acid HClO 2 = chlorous acid

Practice Naming Acids:

Practice Naming Acids HBr HClO H 2 S H 3 PO 4 HCN ( treat as a binary acid ) Hydrobromic acid Hypochlorous acid Hydrosulfuric acid Phosphoric acid Hydrocyanic acid

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