The Process of Science

Views:
 
Category: Education
     
 

Presentation Description

No description available.

Comments

Presentation Transcript

The Nature of Science: 

The Nature of Science Assumptions of Science & The Scientific Method

The Nature of Science: 

The Nature of Science Science is: a search for an understanding of the natural world using inquiry and experimentation Dynamic . It is constantly being reevaluated, tested, and added to.

Basic Assumptions in Science: 

Basic Assumptions in Science There are specific causes for observed events in the world Causes can be identified There are general rules/patterns that can be used to describe what happens in nature A repeated event probably has the same cause One person’s perception can be perceived by others Same rules apply regardless of where/when they occur

The Scientific Method: 

The Scientific Method Science is distinguished from other fields by how knowledge is acquired rather than what is studied. The process of acquiring knowledge is known as the scientific method.

The Scientific Method: 

The Scientific Method Observe & Question Explore Form a Hypothesis Test the Hypothesis Analyze & Draw Conclusions Revise the Hypothesis

Observe and Question: 

Observe and Question Observations occur when we use our senses or an instrument to record an event Direct – perceived by our senses Indirect – based on behavior of surroundings A question is formed based on the observation of an event (usually “why?”)

Explore: 

Explore Research work previously done related to your question

Form a Hypothesis: 

Form a Hypothesis Based on: Work previously completed by other scientists Observations of the phenomenon Hypotheses is a testable statement . Must be able to design an experiment to test your hypothesis

Test the Hypothesis (Experimentation): 

Test the Hypothesis (Experimentation) Design an experiment to test the hypothesis Hypothesis may be supported or disproven Sound, scientific knowledge is backed up by repeated experiments

Test the Hypothesis (Experimentation) continued: 

Test the Hypothesis (Experimentation) continued Variable – any factor that affects the outcome of an experiment. Good experiments test only 1 variable at a time 2 Groups in an experiment Experimental – variable is altered Control – no changes made; original state

Test the Hypothesis (Experimentation) continued: 

Test the Hypothesis (Experimentation) continued Scientists predict how 2 groups will compare Independent variable – variable that is changed to test the prediction Usually on the x-axis of a graph Dependent variable – variable that changes in response to the independent variable Usually on the y-axis of a graph

Analyze: 

Analyze Examine results Tables Charts Graphs If results disprove hypothesis, revise & test again If results support the hypothesis, repeat the procedure to reproduce the results Reproducibility is essential for an idea to become widely accepted

Theories & Laws: 

Theories & Laws A theory is a widely accepted, reasonable explanation of why things happen A broad statement, backed up by a lot of experimental evidence A scientific law is a constant fact of nature that describes what happens in nature. Both theories and laws are: Constantly tested and revised as needed Excellent predictors of how nature behaves

To Review: The Scientific Method: 

To Review: The Scientific Method Observe & Question Explore Form a Hypothesis Test the Hypothesis Analyze & Draw Conclusions Revise the Hypothesis