Chapter 08 Orthographic Convention

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Chapter 8 Convention Practice in Orthographic Writing

TOPICS:

TOPICS Definition Purposes Types of conventions - Alternate position of side view - Incompleted view - Aligned view - Enlarged view - Non-existing intersection line - Cylinder intersection

DEFINITION:

DEFINITION Convention is a commonly accepted practices which disregard some strict rules of orthographic projection. Projection’ s rules Object More readable multiview representation Multiview representation Convention practices Disregard some rules

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Using a dash line for representing the hidden edge. EXAMPLE : Already met convention practice Front view CONVENTION PRACTICE

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PURPOSES To improve the clarity of a drawing. To reduce the drafting effort. To save or efficiently use a drawing space. To facilitate the dimensioning.

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1. Alternate position of side view 2. Incompleted view TYPES OF CONVENTION PRACTICE 2.1 Incompleted side view 2.4 Local view 2.3 Half view 2.2 Partial view

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3. Aligned view 4. Enlarged view 6. Intersection : Hole on a cylinder 5. Non-existing intersection line TYPES OF CONVENTION PRACTICE

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ALTERNATE POSITION OF SIDE VIEW

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Whenever the height of an object is small and the depth is relatively large , places the side view beside the top view. To save drawing space. To improve the clarity of a drawing. Purposes Conventional practice ALTERNATE POSITION OF SIDE VIEW

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Front Top Right Example

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Example Slot becomes more readable. Hole becomes more readable. New orientation of views still agree with 3 rd angle system.

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INCOMPLETED SIDE VIEW

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Incompleted side views are side views that are eliminated a feature that can not clearly seen from a selected viewing direction. DEFINITION

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Principal view Difficult to read and to dimension. Left-side view Right-side view Details are interfered by those on the opposite view. Example : Strictly orthographic projection.

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Example : Incompleted side views Incompleted left-side view Incompleted right-side view Principal view Better describe an object and facilitate dimensioning.

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Principal view Example : Incompleted side views representation

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PARTIAL VIEW HALF VIEW LOCAL VIEW

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Partial view is a view that represents portions of the part that have a features need to clarify . DEFINITION Half view is a partial view that is illustrated only half of the part. Local view is a view that shows only features need to clarify.

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Clearly seen a shape. Example : Partial views

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Symmetry symbol Left half Right half Thin line (4H) Center line acts as a line of symmetry. No continuous line ! Example : Half view

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Half view can be made by drawing the views slightly beyond the line of symmetry. No symmetry symbol. It is allow for writing a break line. In this course, we omit the break line. Example : Half view : alternative representation Thin line (4H)

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Example : Half view : two symmetry axes

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Example : Local view Shape of the slot is completely shown. R6 7 Easy for dimensioning

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ALIGNED VIEW

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DEFINITION Align view is a view that is drawn by imaginarily rotating the object ’ s features , appeared in a principle view about symmetry axis .

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Example : Necessity of align view Waste of time Confuse Apply convention Clear Strictly Projection

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CONVENTION PRACTICE For an object that has symmetrical positioned features , it is advisable to show them on adjacent view in true size at true radial distance from the symmetry axis.

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Example : Align view of holes Gives the impression that there is a hole at the center of the plate. Given Apply aligned convention

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Example : Align view of holes Given Gives the impression that holes are at unsymmetrical position. Apply aligned convention

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Example : Align view of holes Apply aligned convention

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Example : Example : Align view of ribs Apply aligned convention

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Example : Align view of ribs & holes Apply aligned convention

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Example : Align view of ribs & holes & keyway Make Orthographic Projection Apply Convention

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Example : Align view

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ENLARGED VIEW

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Enlarged view is a view partly selected from full view and is drawn with a larger scale . DEFINITION At full view, the selected portion is framed by continuous thin line and having a name. For an enlarged view, it must be specified both name and scale used. Conventional practice

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Example : Enlarged view Full view A A (3:1) Enlarged view A (3:1) or Reference position Scale

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NON-EXISTING LINE OF INTERSECTION

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Non-existing line of intersection is the line of intersecting surfaces that are eliminated by fillets and rounds. When true projection mislead the representation of an object, it is necessary to show the additional lines that are projected from the actual intersection of the surfaces as if the fillets and rounds were not present. DEFINITION Conventional practice

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Example : Non-existing line of intersection Object does not has rounds and fillets Edges of the surfaces are shown as lines in the top view.

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Example : Non-existing line of intersection The view looks like a plate with a hole !! Object has rounds and fillets No edge ! (No intersection between surfaces) Convention practice required ! Construct a non-existing line of intersection.

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Example : Non-existing line of intersection

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INTERSECTION BETWEEN FILLET AND ROUND Runout

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INTERSECTION BETWEEN FILLET AND ROUND

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Tangent point TO DRAW A RUNOUT about 1/8 of circle R R/3 R = radius of fillet or round R

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INTERSECTION BETWEEN ROUND PLANE SURFACE

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INTERSECTION

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HOLE IN CYLINDER Large hole : True projection

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HOLE IN CYLINDER Large hole : True projection Small hole : Convention

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