Chapter 01 Introduction

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Chapter 1 Overview of an Engineering Drawing

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TOPICS Drawing standards Projection methods Orthographic projection Graphics language Engineering drawing

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TOPICS Traditional Drawing Tools Freehand Sketching Lettering

GRAPHICS LANGUAGE:

GRAPHICS LANGUAGE

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1. Try to write a description of this object. 2. Test your written description by having someone attempt to make a sketch from your description. Effectiveness of Graphics Language The word languages are inadequate for describing the size , shape and features completely as well as concisely. You can easily understand that …

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Graphic language in “engineering application” use l ines to represent the surfaces , edges and contours of objects. A drawing can be done using freehand , instruments or computer methods. Composition of Graphic Language The language is known as “ drawing ” or “ drafting ” .

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Freehand drawing The lines are sketched without using instruments other than pencils and erasers. Example

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Instrument drawing Instruments are used to draw straight lines, circles, and curves concisely and accurately. Thus, the drawings are usually made to scale. Example

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Computer drawing The drawings are usually made by commercial software such as AutoCAD, solid works etc. Example

Engineering Drawing:

Engineering Drawing

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Elements of Engineering Drawing Engineering drawing are made up of graphics language and word language . Graphics language Describe a shape (mainly). Word language Describe size, location and specification of the object.

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Basic Knowledge for Drafting Graphics language Word language Line types Geometric construction Lettering Projection method

PROJECTION METHOD:

PROJECTION METHOD

PROJECTION METHOD:

PROJECTION METHOD Perspective Oblique Orthographic Axonometric Multiview Parallel

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PROJECTION THEORY The projection theory is based on two variables: 1) Line of sight 2) Plane of projection ( image plane or picture plane) The projection theory is used to graphically represent 3-D objects on 2-D media (paper, computer screen).

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Line of sight is an imaginary ray of light between an observer’s eye and an object. Line of sight Parallel projection Line of sight Perspective projection There are 2 types of LOS : parallel converge and

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Plane of projection is an imaginary flat plane which the image is created. The image is produced by connecting the points where the LOS pierce the projection plane. Parallel projection Perspective projection Plane of projection Plane of projection

Disadvantage of Perspective Projection:

Disadvantage of Perspective Projection Perspective projection is not used by engineer for manu- facturing of parts, because 1) It is difficult to create. 2) It does not reveal exact shape and size. Width is distorted

Orthographic Projection:

Orthographic Projection

MEANING:

5 Orthographic projection is a parallel projection technique in which the parallel lines of sight are perpendicular to the projection plane MEANING Object views from top Projection plane 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4

ORTHOGRAPHIC VIEW:

ORTHOGRAPHIC VIEW Orthographic view depends on relative position of the object to the line of sight. Two dimensions of an object is shown. Three dimensions of an object is shown. Rotate Tilt More than one view is needed to represent the object. Multiview drawing Axonometric drawing

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Orthographic projection technique can produce either 1. Multiview drawing that each view show an object in two dimensions. 2. Axonometric drawing that show all three dimensions of an object in one view. Both drawing types are used in technical drawing for communication. NOTES ORTHOGRAPHIC VIEW

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Axonometric (Isometric) Drawing Easy to understand Right angle becomes obtuse angle. Circular hole becomes ellipse. Distortions of shape and size in isometric drawing Advantage Disadvantage Shape and angle distortion Example

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Multiview Drawing It represents accurate shape and size. Advantage Disadvantage Require practice in writing and reading. Multiviews drawing (2-view drawing) Example

Drawing Standard:

Drawing Standard

Introduction:

Introduction Standards are set of rules that govern how technical drawings are represented. Drawing standards are used so that drawings convey the same meaning to everyone who reads them.

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ISO I nternational S tandards O rganization Standard Code ANSI A merican N ational S tandard I nstitute USA JIS J apanese I ndustrial S tandard Japan BS B ritish S tandard UK AS A ustralian S tandard Australia D eutsches I nstitut f ü r N ormung DIN Germany Country Code Full name มอก. สำนักงานมาตรฐานผลิตภัณฑ์อุตสาหกรรม Thailand

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Partial List of Drawing Standards มอก. 210 2520 วิธีเขียนแบบทั่วไป : ทางเครื่องกล มอก. 440 ล.1 2541 การเขียนแบบก่อสร้างเล่ม 1 ทั่วไป มอก. 446 ล.4 2532 ข้อแนะนำสำหรับการเขียนแผนภาพ วงจรไฟฟ้า มอก. 1473 2540 การเขียนแบบเทคนิค การติดตั้ง สัญลักษณ์สำหรับระบบท่อของเหลว ระบบทำความร้อน การระบายอากาศ และระบบท่ออากาศ Code number Contents ที่มา : http://library.tisi.go.th/data/lib_resources/pdf/catalog-online49/tis/02_ICS.pdf

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Partial List of Drawing Standards JIS Z 8311 Sizes and Format of Drawings JIS Z 8312 Line Conventions JIS Z 8313 Lettering JIS Z 8314 Scales JIS Z 8315 Projection methods JIS Z 8316 Presentation of Views and Sections JIS Z 8317 Dimensioning Code number Contents

Drawing Sheet:

Drawing Sheet Trimmed paper of a size A0 ~ A4. Standard sheet size ( JIS ) A4 210 x 297 A3 297 x 420 A2 420 x 594 A1 594 x 841 A0 841 x 1189 A4 A3 A2 A1 A0 (Dimensions in millimeters)

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Drawing space Drawing space Title block d d c c c Border lines 1. Type X (A0~A4) 2. Type Y (A4 only) Orientation of drawing sheet Title block Sheet size c (min) d (min) A4 10 25 A3 10 25 A2 10 25 A1 20 25 A0 20 25

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Drawing Scales Scale is the ratio of the linear dimension of an element of an object shown in the drawing to the real linear dimension of the same element of the object. Size in drawing Actual size Length, size :

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Drawing Scales Designation of a scale consists of the word “ SCALE ” followed by the indication of its ratio , as follow SCALE 1:1 for full size SCALE X :1 for enlargement scales (X > 1) SCALE 1: X for reduction scales (X > 1) Dimension numbers shown in the drawing are correspond to “ true size ” of the object and they are independent of the scale used in creating that drawing.

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Basic Line Types Types of Lines Appearance Name according to application Continuous thick line Visible line Continuous thin line Dimension line Extension line Leader line Dash thick line Hidden line Chain thin line Center line NOTE : We will learn other types of line in later chapters.

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Visible lines represent features that can be seen in the current view Meaning of Lines Hidden lines represent features that can not be seen in the current view Center line represents symmetry, path of motion, centers of circles, axis of axisymmetrical parts Dimension and Extension lines indicate the sizes and location of features on a drawing

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Example : Line conventions in engineering drawing

Traditional Drawing Tools:

Traditional Drawing Tools

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DRAWING TOOLS

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1. T-Square 2. Triangles DRAWING TOOLS

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3. Adhesive Tape 4. Pencils 2H or HB for thick line 4H for thin line DRAWING TOOLS

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5. Sandpaper 6. Compass DRAWING TOOLS

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7. Pencil Eraser 8. Erasing Shield DRAWING TOOLS

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9. Circle Template 10. Tissue paper DRAWING TOOLS

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11. Sharpener 12. Clean paper DRAWING TOOLS

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ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZABCDEF ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZABCDEF Lettering

Text on Drawings:

Text on Drawings Text on engineering drawing is used : To communicate nongraphic information. As a substitute for graphic information, in those instance where text can communicate the needed information more clearly and quickly. Uniformity - size - line thickness Legibility - shape - space between letters and words Thus, it must be written with

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Example Placement of the text on drawing Dimension & Notes Notes Title Block

Lettering Standard:

Lettering Standard ANSI Standard This course Use a Gothic text style, either inclined or vertical. Use all capital letters. Use 3 mm for most text height. Space between lines of text is at least 1/3 of text height. Use only a vertical Gothic text style. Use both capital and lower-case letters. Same. For letters in title block it is recommend to use 5~8 mm text height N/A. Follows ANSI rule.

Basic Strokes:

Basic Strokes Straight Slanted Curved Horizontal 1 1 2 3 Examples : Application of basic stroke “ I ” letter “ A ” letter 1 2 3 4 5 6 “ B ” letter

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Suggested Strokes Sequence Straight line letters Curved line letters Curved line letters & Numerals Upper-case letters & Numerals

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The text’ s body height is about 2/3 the height of a capital letter. Suggested Strokes Sequence Lower-case letters

Stroke Sequence:

Stroke Sequence I L T F E H

Stroke Sequence:

V X W Stroke Sequence

Stroke Sequence:

N M K Z Y A Stroke Sequence 4

Stroke Sequence:

O Q C G Stroke Sequence

Stroke Sequence:

D U P B R J Stroke Sequence 1 2

Stroke Sequence:

5 Stroke Sequence 7

Stroke Sequence:

6 8 9 0 Stroke Sequence S 3

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Stroke Sequence l i

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Stroke Sequence v w x k z

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Stroke Sequence j y f r t

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Stroke Sequence c o a b d p q e

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Stroke Sequence g n m h u s

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Word Composition Look at the same word having different spacing between letters. JIRAPONG J I G O R N P A Which one is easier to read ? A) Non-uniform spacing B) Uniform spacing

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Word Composition JIRAPONG \ / \ | )( ) | ( | Space between the letters depends on the contour of the letters at an adjacent side. Spacing Contour | | | | General conclusions are: Good spacing creates approximately equal background area between letters.

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1. Straight - Straight 2. Straight - Curve 3. Straight - Slant 4. Curve - Curve Space between Letters

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6. Slant - Slant 5. Curve - Slant 7. The letter “L” and “T” ≡ slant slant ≡ slant straight Space between Letters

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GOOD Not uniform in style. Not uniform in height. Not uniformly vertical or inclined. Not uniform in thickness of stroke. Area between letters not uniform. Area between words not uniform. Example : Good and Poor Lettering

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Leave the space between words equal to the space requires for writing a letter “O”. Example Sentence Composition ALL DIMENSIONS ARE IN MILLIMETERS O O O O UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED. O

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Freehand Sketching

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Straight Line 1. Hold the pencil naturally. 2. Spot the beginning and end points. 3. Swing the pencil back and forth between the points, barely touching the paper until the direction is clearly established. 4. Draw the line firmly with a free and easy wrist-and-arm motion

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Horizontal line Vertical line

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Nearly vertical inclined line Nearly horizontal inclined line

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Small Circle Method 1 : Starting with a square 1. Lightly sketching the square and marking the mid-points. 2. Draw light diagonals and mark the estimated radius. 3. Draw the circle through the eight points. Step 1 Step 2 Step 3

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Method 2 : Starting with center line Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 1. Lightly draw a center line. 2. Add light radial lines and mark the estimated radius. 3. Sketch the full circle. Small Circle

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Place the little finger (or pencil’ s tip) at the center as a pivot, and set the pencil point at the radius-distance from the center. Hold the hand in this position and rotate the paper. Large Circle

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Arc Method 1 : Starting with a square Method 2 : Starting with a center line

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Steps in Sketching 1. Block in main shape. 2. Locate the features. 3. Sketch arcs and circles. 4. Sketch lines.

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Example

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