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Premium member Presentation Transcript WELCOME: 1 WELCOMEGROUP #01: GROUP #01 ABID KHAN NIAZI 2010-BT-CHEM-01 AAMIR SHAHZAD 2010-BT-CHEM-28 ADEEL UR REHMAN 2010-BT-CHEM-32 2STEAM POWER PLANT : STEAM POWER PLANT A power plant in which the Water is heated, turns into steam and spins a STEAM TURBINE which drives an ELECTRICAL GENERATOR . After this ,the steam is condensed in a CONDENSER and recycled to BOILER . 3PowerPoint Presentation: C saturated water hot gases Steam Turbine Gen compressed water superheated steam Condenser Pump cooling water saturated steam Steam Generator Steam Turbine Power Plant 4PowerPoint Presentation: Steam Turbine to produce Electricity Oil could be used instead of coal. 5PRINCIPAL : PRINCIPAL All this process works on RANKINE CYCLE , a cycle that converts heat into work. It is named after William John Macquorn Rankine , a Scottish polymath and Glasgow University professor. 6WHAT IS A RANKINE CYCLE ???: WHAT IS A RANKINE CYCLE ??? There are four steps in the Rankine cycle. Step 1-2 : The working fluid is pumped from low to high pressure. As the fluid is a liquid at this stage the pump requires little input energy. Step 2-3 : The high pressure liquid enters a boiler where it is heated at constant pressure by an external heat source to become a dry saturated vapor. Step 3-4 : The dry saturated vapor expands through a turbine, generating power. This decreases the temperature and pressure of the vapor, and some condensation may occur. Step 4-1 : The wet vapor then enters a condenser where it is condensed at a constant temperature to become a saturated liquid. 7TEMPERATURE VS ENTROPY DIAGRAM: TEMPERATURE VS ENTROPY DIAGRAM 8CARNOT CYCLE: CARNOT CYCLE The Carnot cycle is a theoretical thermodynamic cycle proposed by Sadi Carnot in 1824.It can be shown that it is the most efficient cycle for converting a given amount of thermal energy into work. 9CARNOT CYCLE VS RANKINE CYCLE: CARNOT CYCLE VS RANKINE CYCLE 10pump: pump A device which transfers fluid from one place to another place is called pump . During pumping process the pressure and temperature of fluid increases. 11BOILER: BOILER A boiler is used wherever a source of steam is required. The form and size depends on the application. TYPES Fire Tube Direct Heating Multi-Tube Water Tube 12PowerPoint Presentation: 13TURBINE: TURBINE A steam turbine is a mechanical device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam, and converts it into rotary motion. 14Types OF TURBINE: Types OF TURBINE 1- Impulse Turbine 2-Reaction Turbine 15Impulse turbines: Impulse turbines An impulse turbine has fixed nozzles that orient the steam flow into high speed jets. These jets contain significant kinetic energy, which the rotor blades, shaped like buckets, convert into shaft rotation as the steam jet changes direction. 16 Rotor: Rotor 17Impulse Turbine: Impulse Turbine 18Reaction turbines: Reaction turbines In the reaction turbine, the rotor blades themselves are arranged to form convergent nozzles. This type of turbine makes use of the reaction force produced as the steam accelerates through the nozzles formed by the rotor. Steam is directed onto the rotor by the fixed vanes of the stator. It leaves the stator as a jet that fills the entire circumference of the rotor. The steam then changes direction and increases its speed relative to the speed of the blades. 19PowerPoint Presentation: 20ADVANTAGES OF STEAM TURBINE: ADVANTAGES OF STEAM TURBINE It requires less space. Absence of various links such as piston, piston rod, cross head etc. make the mechanism simple. It is quiet and smooth in operation, Its over-load capacity is large. It can be designed for much greater capacities as compared to steam engine. Steam turbines can be built in sizes ranging from a few horse power to over 200,000 horse power in single units. 21ADVANTAGES OF STEAM TURBINE (cont.): ADVANTAGES OF STEAM TURBINE (cont.) The internal lubrication is not required in steam turbine. This reduces to the cost of lubrication. In steam turbine the steam consumption does not increase with increase in years of service. In steam turbine power is generated at uniform rate, therefore, flywheel is not needed. It can be designed for much higher speed and greater range of speed. The thermodynamic efficiency of steam turbine is higher. 22CONDENSER: CONDENSER The device which converts vapors into liquid form called condenser . In steam power plants it is used to convert low pressure steam into water by exchanging heat. The mechanism may be explained as : 23PowerPoint Presentation: 24THANK YOU: 25 THANK YOU You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.