Enteric fever

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TYPHOID FEVER

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TYPHOID FEVER :

TYPHOID FEVER M.PRASAD NAIDU MSc MEDICAL, Ph.D.

Slide2:

Typhoid fever  — also known simply as  typhoid  — is a common worldwide bacterial disease transmitted by the ingestion of food or water contaminated with the  feces  of an infected person, which contain the bacterium Salmonella enterica  subsp enterica , serovar Typhi.

Slide3:

The disease has received various names, such as  gastric fever ,  enteric fever ,  abdominal typhus ,  infantile remittant fever ,  slow fever , nervous fever , and  pythogenic fever . The name  typhoid  means " resembling typhus " and comes from the neuropsychiatric symptoms common to typhoid and typhus.  Despite this similarity of their names, typhoid fever and typhus are distinct diseases and are caused by different species of bacteria.

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The occurrence of this disease fell sharply in the developed world with the rise of 20th-century sanitation techniques and  antibiotics.  In 2013 it resulted in about 161,000 deaths – down from 181,000 in 1990.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS :

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

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Classically, the course of untreated typhoid fever is divided into four individual stages, each lasting about a week. Over the course of these stages, the patient becomes exhausted and emaciated.

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In the first week, the body temperature rises slowly, and fever fluctuations are seen with relative  bradycardia (Faget sign), malaise, headache, and cough. A bloody nose ( epistaxis ) is seen in a quarter of cases, and abdominal pain is also possible. A decrease in the number of circulating white blood cells ( leukopenia) occurs with eosinopenia and relativelymphocytosis; blood cultures are positive for   Salmonella typhi  or  S. paratyphi . The Widal test  is negative in the first week.

Slide8:

In the second week of the infection, the patient lies prostrate with high fever in plateau around 40 °C (104 °F) and bradycardia (sphygmothermic dissociation or Faget sign), classically with a  dicrotic pulse wave.  Delirium  is frequent, often calm, but sometimes agitated. This delirium gives to typhoid the nickname of "nervous fever".  Rose spots  appear on the lower chest and abdomen in around a third of patients.  Rhonchi  are heard in lung bases .

Slide9:

The abdomen is distended and painful in the right lower quadrant, where  borborygmi  can be heard. Diarrhea can occur in this stage: six to eight stools in a day, green, comparable to pea soup, with a characteristic smell. However, constipation is also frequent. The spleen and liver are enlarged ( hepatosplenomegaly) and tender, and liver transaminases  are elevated.

Slide10:

The Widal test is strongly positive, with antiO and antiH antibodies. Blood cultures are sometimes still positive at this stage. (The major symptom of this fever is that the fever usually rises in the afternoon up to the first and second week.) In the third week of typhoid fever, a number of complications can occur: Intestinal haemorrhage due to bleeding in congested Peyer's patches ; this can be very serious, but is usually not fatal.

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Intestinal perforation in the distal  ileum : this is a very serious complication and is frequently fatal. It may occur without alarming symptoms until  septicaemia  or diffuse  peritonitis sets in. Encephalitis Neuropsychiatric symptoms (described as "muttering delirium" or "coma vigil"), with picking at bedclothes or imaginary objects. Metastatic abscesses,  cholecystitis, endocarditis, and osteitis The fever is still very high and oscillates very little over 24 hours. 

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Dehydration  ensues, and the patient is delirious (typhoid state). One-third of affected individuals develop a macular rash on the trunk. Platelet count goes down slowly and risk of bleeding rises. By the end of third week, the fever starts subsiding ( defervescence ). This carries on into the fourth and final week.

TRANSMISSION :

TRANSMISSION

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The bacterium that causes typhoid fever may be spread through poor hygiene habits and public sanitation conditions, and sometimes also by flying insects feeding on feces. Public education campaigns encouraging people to wash their hands after defecating and before handling food are an important component in controlling spread of the disease. According to statistics from the United States  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC), the chlorination  of drinking water has led to dramatic decreases in the transmission of typhoid fever in the United States.

DIAGNOSIS:

DIAGNOSIS

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Diagnosis is made by any  blood, bone marrow or stool cultures  and with the Widal test (demonstration of  Salmonella   antibodies against antigens O-somatic and H-flagellar). In epidemics and less wealthy countries, after excluding  malaria, dysentery, or pneumonia, a therapeutic trial time with chloramphenicol  is generally undertaken while awaiting the results of the Widal test and cultures of the blood and stool.

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WBBM WITH BLACK COLONIES OF S.TYPHI

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Bile broth Castaneda's medium

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The Widal test is time-consuming, and often, when a diagnosis is reached, it is too late to start an  antibiotic  regimen. The term 'enteric fever' is a collective term that refers to severe typhoid and paratyphoid

1939 conceptual illustration showing various ways that typhoid bacteria can contaminate a water well(center) :

1939 conceptual illustration showing various ways that typhoid bacteria can contaminate a  water well (center)

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NLF ON MAC CONKEY AGAR

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Reaction S.typhi S.Para A S.Para B Lactose -ve -ve -ve Sucrose -ve -ve -ve Xylose -ve -ve A/G Glucose A A/G A/g Maltose A A/G A/G Mannitol A A/G A/G Indole -ve -ve -ve MR +ve +ve +ve VP -ve -ve -ve Citrate -ve D +ve Urease -ve -ve -ve

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BIOCHEMICAL REACTIONS OF SALMONELLA INDOLE MR VP CITRATE UREA

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SUGAR FERMENTATION OF S.TYPHI G S L MAL MAN X

Sugar fermentation reactions:

Sugar fermentation reactions G L S MAL MN X G L S X MAN MAL X S. Para A S.Para .B

PREVENTION :

PREVENTION

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Sanitation and hygiene are the critical measures that can be taken to prevent typhoid. Typhoid does not affect animals, so transmission is only from human to human. Typhoid can only spread in environments where human feces or urine are able to come into contact with food or drinking water. Careful food preparation and washing of hands are crucial to prevent typhoid.

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Two vaccines are licensed for use for the prevention of typhoid:  the live, oral  Ty21a  vaccine (sold as Vivo tif by Crucell Switzerland AG) and the injectable  typhoid polysaccharide vaccine  (sold as Typhim Vi by Sanofi Pasteur and 'Typherix by GlaxoSmithKline).

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Both are 50 to 80% protective and are recommended for travellers to areas where typhoid is endemic. Boosters are recommended every five years for the oral vaccine and every two years for the injectable form. An older, killed-whole-cell vaccine is still used in countries where the newer preparations are not available, but this vaccine is no longer recommended for use because it has a higher rate of side effects (mainly pain and inflammation at the site of the injection)

Treatment :

Treatment The rediscovery of  oral rehydration therapy  in the 1960s provided a simple way to prevent many of the deaths of diarrheal diseases in general. Where resistance is uncommon, the treatment of choice is a  fluoroquinolone such as ciprofloxacin . Otherwise, a third-generation cephalosporin such as  ceftriaxone or cefotaxime  is the first choice. Cefixime  is a suitable oral alternative.

Slide32:

Typhoid fever, when properly treated, is not fatal in most cases.  Antibiotics, such as ampicillin , chloramphenicol,  trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, amoxicillin , and ciprofloxacin, have been commonly used to treat typhoid fever in microbiology.Treatment of the disease with antibiotics reduces the case-fatality rate to about 1%. When untreated, typhoid fever persists for three weeks to a month. Death occurs in 10% to 30% of untreated cases. In some communities, however, case-fatality rates may reach as high as 47%

SURGERY :

SURGERY

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Surgery is usually indicated in cases of  intestinal perforation . Most surgeons prefer simple closure of the perforation with drainage of the  peritoneum . Small-bowel resection is indicated for patients with multiple perforations. If antibiotic treatment fails to eradicate the  hepatobiliary  carriage, the  gallbladder should be resected.  Cholecystectomy is not always successful in eradicating the carrier state because of persisting hepatic infection.

Slide35:

Resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole,and  streptomycin  is now common, and these agents have not been used as first–line treatment for almost 20 years.  Typhoid resistant to these agents is known as multidrug-resistant typhoid (MDR typhoid).

Slide36:

Ciprofloxacin resistance is an increasing problem, especially in the  Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia. Many centres are therefore moving away from using ciprofloxacin as the first line for treating suspected typhoid originating in South America, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Thailand, or Vietnam. For these patients, the recommended first-line treatment is  ceftriaxone. Also,azithromycin  has been suggested to be better at treating typhoid in resistant populations than both fluoroquinolone drugs and ceftriaxone. Azithromycin significantly reduces relapse rates compared with ceftriaxone.

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A separate problem exists with laboratory testing for reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin: current recommendations are that isolates should be tested simultaneously against ciprofloxacin (CIP) and against  nalidixic acid   (NAL), and that isolates that are sensitive to both CIP and NAL should be reported as "sensitive to ciprofloxacin", but that isolates testing sensitive to CIP but not to NAL should be reported as "reduced sensitivity to ciprofloxacin

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". However, an analysis of 271 isolates showed that around 18% of isolates with a reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin ( MIC  0.125–1.0 mg/l) would not be picked up by this method.  How this problem can be solved is not certain, because most laboratories around the world (including the West) are dependent on  disk testing  and cannot test for MICs

Mary Mallon ("Typhoid Mary") in a hospital bed (foreground): She was forcibly quarantined as a carrier of typhoid fever in 1907 for three years and then again from 1915 until her death in 1938.:

Mary Mallon  ("Typhoid Mary") in a hospital bed (foreground): She was forcibly quarantined as a carrier of typhoid fever in 1907 for three years and then again from 1915 until her death in 1938.

Almroth Edward Wright developed the first effective typhoid vaccine.:

Almroth Edward Wright  developed the first effective typhoid vaccine.

Lizzie van Zyl was a child inmate in a British-run concentration camp in South Africa who died from typhoid fever during the Boer War (1899–1902:

Lizzie van Zyl  was a child inmate in a British-run concentration camp in South Africa who died from typhoid fever during the  Boer War  (1899–1902

THANK YOU:

THANK YOU

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