Principles of Training

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Suitable for GCSE PE or BTEC First Certificate in Sport

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Principles Of Training : 

Principles Of Training There are 7 principles that you should follow whenever you train or exercise. These principles apply to every sport and every level of activity. These principles need to be put into your Personal Exercise Program, and there are ALWAYS questions in the exam on them.

MODERATION : 

MODERATION If you train too much or too hard the following can occur: Tedium – this means you get bored and so you don’t work as hard. Injury – it can mean that your muscles or joints do not get time to recover and so you might strain a muscle because of this. Illness – little recovery can lead to your immune system being over run as you get too tired.

Training Threshold : 

Training Threshold Working between 60%-85% of your maximum heart rate Between 120 BPM and 175 BPM

Individual Needs : 

Individual Needs This means working on something for an individual person. It may be that a scrum half in rugby wants to work on his passing from the base of a scrum. A swimmer may want to work on her tumble turns (technique) and the power she needs to push off from the blocks.

Individual Needs : 

Individual Needs Individual needs can be technique or fitness based. It usually focuses on areas of weakness that need to be developed in order to improve performance.

Reversibility : 

Reversibility If you stop training, for whatever reason, your fitness will get worse. Your muscles will atrophy (get smaller) It could be because of injury or illness, or because you are bored or suspended for example. One week off can take as much as three weeks training to get back to where you were!!

Specificity : 

Specificity This means working on a certain area that is needed for that sport or activity. Muscle Groups: Legs (Gastrocnemius, Hamstrings, Quadriceps, Groins) Arms (Biceps and Triceps) Shoulder and Back (Deltoids, Latissimus Dorsi and Trapezius)

Specificity : 

Specificity Component Of Fitness Examples: A sprinter would need to work on strength, speed, power, reaction time, plus endurance, co-ordination and balance. Could those all be worked on at the same time? It is unlikely Therefore some sessions could focus on one or two components (speed and reaction time).

Specificity : 

Specificity Swimmers: What components would they need and why? Which are the most important? Footballers Badminton – what type of game is it? What components do you need? Skills based training – working on skills that are vital to that sport or need to be improved.

Progression : 

Progression To improve it is necessary to overload your body but you must do this slowly and over a period of time so as to not injure the body (reversibility and moderation) Bench Press: Week 1 – 2 sets of 10 at 15kg Week 2 – 2 sets of 10 at 20 kg Week 3 – 3 sets of 10 at 20 kg Week 4 – 3 sets of 10 at 25 kg Week 10 – 4 sets of 10 at 40kg

Overload : 

Overload Working the body harder than normal (than it is used to). This can be done in a number of ways. Remember the FITT principle: F – Frequency: Doing an activity more often i.e. 3 times a week rather than two. I – Intensity: Making the activity harder i.e. lifting 30kg instead of 25kg. T – Time: Working for longer i.e. 25 minutes on the treadmill rather than 20. T – Type: A different activity or type of training to work the same component of fitness or muscle group.

Task : 

Task Pick 2 different sports. For each: 1: State which components of fitness are most important and why. 2: List which muscles or muscle groups would be the best to work on, and say why (use the books to help you if you need). 3: List training activities that could improve the areas you have identified in 1 & 2.

Task Example - Badminton : 

Task Example - Badminton Components of Fitness priority (which ones are not here?) Speed – to get around the court Power – to let me hit shots harder and move my opponent around more. Agility – so I can change direction quickly when my opponent plays a shot away from me. Flexibility – to allow me to play with correct technique and so get power into my shots. Endurance – to allow me to keep going and not get fatigued later in the game. Reaction Time – to help me respond quickly when my opponent plays a shot. Co-ordination – to help me get my racket and body in the correct positions at the right time. This will help with power and speed.

Muscle Groups : 

Muscle Groups Lots of short sharp movements with my legs – pushing off the court floor to change direction: Calf (gastrocnemius), Quadriceps and hamstrings Groins – moving to the sides and changing direction quickly. Shoulders and Backs – Deltoids and Trapezius to help me play all my shots.

Things to think about : 

Things to think about Badminton players need to be quick and agile, yet strong and powerful, yet flexible and co-ordinated with good balance. They need strength to get lots of power but they can’t be big and bulky like a rugby player. Golfers don’t need to be quick….or do they? What is the most important thing for a gymnast? Balance? Flexibility? Strength? Power? Agility? Co-ordination?

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