Adverb clauses

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Adverb Clauses:

Adverb Clauses

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Characteristics of an adverb clause It consists of: a) a subordinate connector b) a subject c) a verb It answers questions such as: a) When? b) Why? c) How? d) Where? e) Under what condition? An adverb clause may also show contrast.

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Let’s consider this sentence. When I got home, Adverb clause I met the door unlocked. The adverb clause in this sentence answers the question: When did you meet the door unlocked? When I got home.

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OBSERVE the adverb clause When I met the door unlocked. 1. It has a connector - when 2. It has a subject - I 3. It has a verb - got So, we have: connector + subject + verb = C S V I got home, C S V

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Adverb clauses must have: an adverb clause connector a subject a verb

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Adverb Clause Connectors Adverb clause connectors can be divided into groups, according to what they emphasize. Connectors may emphasize: Time Cause or reason Condition Contrast Manner Place

CONNECTORS OF TIME:

CONNECTORS OF TIME after as as long as as soon as before by the time once since until when whenever while

CONNECTORS OF CAUSE:

CONNECTORS OF CAUSE as because inasmuch as now that since

CONNECTORS OF CONDITION:

CONNECTORS OF CONDITION if in case provided providing unless whether

CONNECTORS OF CONTRAST:

CONNECTORS OF CONTRAST although even though though while whereas

CONNECTORS OF MANNER & PLACE:

CONNECTORS OF MANNER & PLACE MANNER PLACE as in that where wherever

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Where to find adverb clauses in sentences Before an independent clause (with comma) If it rains a lot, the city will flood. Adverb clause + comma Independent clause

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Where to find adverb clauses in sentences After an independent clause (no comma) The city will flood if it rains a lot. Adverb clause (no comma) Independent clause

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Typical TOEFL question – adverb clause _________ a lot , the city will flood . What’s missing? OBSERVE the structure of the sentence. comma + independent = adverb clause at the beginning: adverb connector + subject + verb comma independent

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Typical TOEFL question – adverb clause _________ a lot , the city will flood . What’s missing? OBSERVE the structure of the sentence. comma + independent = adverb clause at the beginning: If it rains comma independent If it rains

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_________ rains a lot. Another example OBSERVE the structure of the sentence There’s an independent clause at the beginning with no commas. There’s another verb: in the 2 nd part. SIGNALS: Adverb clause connector + subject are needed to complete the sentence. if it if it (rains) The city will flood

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_________ mostly made of granite, Another example OBSERVE the structure of the sentence There’s an independent clause after the comma. In other words, there’s a comma + subject + verb) in the middle of the sentence. SIGNALS: Adverb clause connector + subject are needed at the beginning . it also contains some human-made materials.

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_________ mostly made of granite, Now, select the best answer for the question. it also contains some human-made materials. A) The Empire State Building B) The Empire State Building is C) Although the Empire State Building is D) Although the Empire State Building is built connector + subject + verb Comma + subject + verb Correct answer - C

PRACTICE:

PRACTICE 1. Pressure differences make the eardrum vibrate _________ the ear. A) enters the sound waves B) as sound waves C) sound waves enter D) as sound waves enter

PRACTICE:

PRACTICE 2. _________ igneous rock may be changed into gneisses. A) The temperature is high B) If the temperature is high C) High temperatures D) If high temperature

PRACTICE:

PRACTICE 3. Because a family of birds set up housekeeping in Joel Chandler Harris’s mailbox when the birds were in need of a place to stay, __________ the Wren’s Nest . A) the home was named B) so the home was named C) naming the home D) the home’s name

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