Bird Migration

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Deependra Singh Shekhawat Wildlife Research laboratory, Department of Zoology, M. L. S. University, Udaipur(Rajasthan)

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What are…….. Wetlands ? Aquatic Birds ? Migratory Birds ?

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Wetlands.. Wetlands are interface between Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems . They have been called the 'nature's kidneys' because they cleanse our environment. Who i m ??? Many species of birds and mammals rely on wetlands for food, water, especially during migration and breeding.

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Aquatic Birds… Birds which are live in water (Aquatic ecosystem) or around water body…..

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Migratory Birds…. long-distance movement of individuals, usually on a seasonal basis. (Always includes A return trip from where it began). The trigger for the migration may be due to local climate change, local availability of food changes and for mating reasons.

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Types…. Migratory Status…. Duration and Distance…. Speed…. Navigation…. Causes of Migration….. Advantages….. ???????????........

Types…….. :

Daily / Local Migration Seasonal Migration Latitudinal Migration Altitudinal Migration Longitudinal Migration Types……..

Status….:

1. Permanent residents 2. Summer Migrants 3. Winter Migrants 4. Transient / Passage Migrants Status….

Duration and Distance…. :

May travel from 500km to 17,000 km. Some birds which cover short distances e.g.- Vesper sparrow from Canada to North America. On other hands some may be covered several hundreds km. e.g., Barn Swallow have cover about 11,200km . Majority of the birds migrate at night, and usually they rest and forage during day time. The golden plover flies non stop from Alaska to south America, covering 4000 km. Duration and Distance….

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How do Birds Prepare for long distance Migration? Molting Postnuptual molt New feather growth needed for long migratory flights Migratory restlessness Termed Zugunruhe Putting on weight

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Migration Fat: Fat yields 2x energy Birds add to 20% body mass, mostly in fat Fat deposits in adipose tissue of skin, in muscles, organs Spreads as a thin layer just under skin Also provides insulation during high altitude migration flights

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Speed………. Most birds can compete with an efficient automobile, like a car they can also cover 90 km in an hour. Its varies birds to birds.. Such as: In Small song birds – 32-64 km/h In Larger birds (Cranes)- 40-96 km/h In Ducks, geese- 77-96 km/h Humming birds- 32 km/h Sandpipers- 96 km/h

Navigation: :

Most of the birds are remarkable path finder. How do birds determine their way and position themselves correctly remains a mystery for man. But some theories trying to explain this problem. Retracement theory: A bird stores in its memory kinesthetic and semi-circular canal impressions of every twist and turn of an outgoing journey, and recalls them, in reverse order, for guidance on the return trip. Daytime Migrants use their vision to steer by the sun and land marks. Night Migrants take compass cues from moon and star positions. Birds flying in large groups orient themselves better than those birds which fly alone . Navigation:

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Why Migrate???? Migration as Opportunity Nesting Food Migration as Escape From weather From lack of food

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What are the Benefits of Migration? Avoid harsh and dangerous winter climates Avoid lack of food during winter Especially insectivorous birds such as wood warblers Especially fruit-eating birds such as waxwings Avoid lack of cover during winter Migrate from area of sparse or no food to area of relatively abundant food So migration enhances survivorship of many populations

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What are the Costs of Migration? Migration Risks Risks attend all long distance migrations Exposure to predators Exposure to exhaustion Exposure to harsh, dangerous weather conditions during middle of migration

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Thank you