Pulmonary tuberculosis.ppt

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Presentation Transcript


PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS Conducted by: Ms.Monika Clinical instructor Army college of nursing


INTRODUCTION Tuberculosis has remained an enemy of human society for all ages. TB is not only a problem for the person suffering from it or their families but a public health problem of the entire world. TB is an infectious disease. It mainly effects the lungs.


DEFINITION TB is an infectious disease that mainly affect the lungs parenchyma Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious bacterial infection that mainly affects the lungs parenchyma, but may spread to other organs

Etiology : 

Etiology Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). It us also caused by breathing in air droplets from a cough or sneeze of an infected person. This is called primary TB. The bacteria affects mainly the lung parenchyma but it can also affect Other parts that is meninges, kidney, bones, lymph.

Risk factors : 

Risk factors The following people are at higher risk for active TB: Elderly Infants People with weakened immune systems, for example due to AIDS, chemotherapy, or antirejection medicines given after an organ transplant

Cont….d : 

Cont….d Your risk of contracting TB increases if you: Are in frequent contact with people who have the disease Have poor nutrition Live in crowded or unsanitary living conditions Increase in HIV infections Malnourished. Sputum induction procedures like suctioning, coughing. Health care workers

Cont………d : 

Cont………d Person who has active TB. Cancer. Transplanted organ. IV drug users and alcoholic.


TRANSMISSION OF TB TB spread from person to person by airborne transmission. Infected person release droplet nuclei (1-5 micro meter in diameter) through : TALKING COUGHING SNEEZING LAUGHING SINGING

Classification of Tb : 

Class 0 : No TB exposure. Class 1 : TB exposure, no infection. Class 2 : Latent TB infection. no disease. Classification of Tb

Classification of Tb : 

Classification of Tb

Symptoms : 

Symptoms The primary stage of the disease usually doesn't cause symptoms. When symptoms of pulmonary TB occur, they may include: Cough Coughing up blood Excessive sweating, especially at night Fatigue Fever Unintentional weight loss Malaise

Cont…………..d : 

Cont…………..d Other symptoms that may occur with this disease: Breathing difficulty Chest pain Wheezing


DIAGNOSTIC EVALUATION OF TB Examination may show: Clubbing of the fingers or toes (in people with advanced disease) Enlarged or tender lymph nodes in the neck or other areas Fluid around a lung Unusual breath sounds (crackles)

Cont..d : 

Cont..d Tests may include: biopsy of the affected tissue (rare) Bronchoscopy chest ct scan Chest x ray Sputum examination and cultures Thoracentasis Tuberculin skin test

Slide 16: 

Pathophysiology the infectious droplets settle throughout the airways. The majority of the bacilli are trapped in the upper parts of the airways where the mucus-secreting goblet cells exist. The mucus produced catches foreign substances. Bacteria in droplets that bypass the mucociliary system and reach the alveoli are quickly surrounded and engulfed by alveolar macrophages,

Cont………d : 

Cont………d After being ingested by macrophages, the mycobacteria continue to multiply slowly, with bacterial cell division occurring every 25 to 32 hours. Client is infected but not in active disease. Creates a lesion called tubercle which prevent the spread of infection Bacteria can active again. Causing reinfection and active disease.


POTENTIAL COMPLICATION Malnutrition. Adverse side effect of medication therapy : hepatitis, skin rash gastrointestinal upset. Multidrug resistance. Spread of TB infection.

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