phayngitis and laryngitis.ppt

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Pharyngitis & laryngitis :

Pharyngitis & laryngitis Conducted by Ms.Monika Clinical instructor Army college of Nursing

introduction:

introduction Pharyngitis is the inflammation of the pharynx ( tonsils ,palate ,uvula). It May be viral ,bacterial , or fungal. It is of two types: acute & chronic Chronic phayngitis is most common in people who are habitually for the use of alcohol ,chronic cough ,employed in dusty environment

Etiology :

Etiology Many germs can cause pharyngitis. Viruses are the most common cause of pharyngitis. Bacteria that can cause pharyngitis include Group A streptococcus, which leads to strep throat in some cases. Other, less-common bacteria that cause sore throats include corynebacterium, arcanobacterium, Neisseria gonorrhoeae , and Chlamydia pneumoniae . Both viral pharyngitis & bacterial pharyngitis are contagious by droplet spread.

Sign & symptoms:

Sign & symptoms The main symptom is a sore throat . Other symptoms may include: Fever Headache Joint pain and muscle aches Skin rashes Swollen lymph nodes in the neck Malaise Cough Difficulty in swallowing

Diagnostic evaluation :

Diagnostic evaluation A culture of the pharyngeal mucosa is indicated before the treatment is started. The health care provider will Perform a physical exam & visualize throat.

POSSIBLE COMPLICATIONS :

POSSIBLE COMPLICATIONS Complications of pharyngitis may include: Blockage of the airway (in severe cases) Sore (abscess) around the tonsils or behind the pharynx

MEDICAL MANAGEMENT:

MEDICAL MANAGEMENT Avoid antibiotics when sore throat is due to infection with a virus. Antibiotics to treat viral infections helps strengthen bacteria to become resistant to antibiotics. Antibiotics are used to treat the bacterial pharyngitis. Antifungal agents are used to treat fungal infections. Use of comfort measures is required for viral types: bed rest ,fluids ,warm saline gargles

Home management :

Home management Drink warm liquids. (Honey or lemon tea) Gargle several times a day with warm salt water (1/2 tsp of salt in 1 cup water). Suck on hard candies or throat lozenges Use a cool-mist vaporizer or humidifier to moisten and soothe a dry and painful throat.

Cont…………………..d:

Cont…………………..d Good hand washing technique is essential. Use of mask may prevent spread of infection.

Slide 10:

Laryngitis

Introduction :

Introduction Laryngitis is swelling and irritation (inflammation) of the voice box (larynx) that is usually associated with hoarseness or loss of voice. Edema of vocal cords caused by the chronic irritation of an upper respiratory tract infection inhibits the normal mobility of the vocal cords ,which causes abnormal sounds.

Etiology:

Etiology The most common form of laryngitis is an infection caused by a virus. It may also be caused by: Allergies Pneumonia Bacterial infection Common cold Bronchitis Injury Flu Irritants and chemicals Laryngitis often occurs with an upper respiratory infection .

Clinical manifestation :

Clinical manifestation Fever Hoarseness Swollen lymph nodes or glands in the neck

Diagnostic evaluation :

Diagnostic evaluation A physical examination . Patients with lasting hoarseness (especially smokers) will need to see an ear, nose, and throat doctor (otolaryngologist) for tests of the throat and upper airway.

Possible Complications :

Possible Complications Rarely, severe respiratory distress may develop. This will require medical attention.

Medical management :

Medical management Antibiotics may be used if bacterial infection is suspected. In severe cases ,steroids may be may be prescribed to reduce inflammation & edema. Supplemental humidification may add to increase moisture to liquefy secretions. The client with laryngitis may also placed to voice rest to allow the edema of vocal cords to subside

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