C Programming Language tutorial

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C Programming Language tutorial :

C Programming Language tutorial Perp by:-www.javatpoint.com

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What is c language:- C is mother language of all programming language. It is system programming language. It is procedure-oriented programming language. It is also called mid level programming language.

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History of c language:- C programming language was developed in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie at bell laboratories of AT&T(American Telephone & Telegraph), located in U.S.A. Dennis Ritchie is known as founder of c language. It was developed to be used in UNIX Operating system. It inherits many features of previous languages such as B and BPCL.

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Language year Developed By ALGOL 1960 International Group BPCL 1967 Martin Richards B 1970 Ken Thompson Traditional C 1972 Dennis Ritchie K & R C 1978 Kernighan & Dennis Ritchie ANSI C 1989 ANSI Committee ANSI/ISO C 1990 ISO Committee C99 1999 Standardization Committee

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Features of C Language:- There are many features of c language are given below. Simple Machine Independent or Portable Mid-level programming language structured programming language Rich Library Memory Management Fast Speed Pointers Recursion Extensible

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First Program of C Language:- #include <stdio.h>   #include <conio.h>   void  main(){   printf("Hello C Language");      getch();   }  

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Describe the C Program:- #include <stdio.h>  includes the  standard input output  library functions. The printf() function is defined in stdio.h . #include <conio.h>  includes the  console input output  library functions. The getch() function is defined in conio.h file. void main()  The  main() function is the entry point of every program  in c language. The void keyword specifies that it returns no value. printf()  The printf() function is  used to print data  on the console. getch()  The getch() function  asks for a single character . Until you press any key, it blocks the screen.

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Output of Program is:- Hello C Language

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Input output function in C:- There are two input output function of c language. First is printf() Second is scanf() printf() function is used for output. It prints the given statement to the console. Syntax of printf() is given below: printf(“format string”,arguments_list); Format string can be %d(integer), %c(character), %s(string), %f(float) etc.

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scanf() Function: is used for input. It reads the input data from console. scanf(“format string”,argument_list); Note:-See more example of input-output function on:-www.javatpoint.com/printf-scanf

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Data types in C language:- There are four types of data types in C language. Types Data Types Basic Data Type int, char, float, double Derived Data Type array, pointer, structure, union Enumeration Data Type enum Void Data Type void

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Keywords in C Language:- A keyword is a  reserved word . You cannot use it as a variable name, constant name etc. There are 32 keywords in C language as given below: auto break case char const continue default do double else enum extern float for goto if int long register return short signed sizeof static struct switch typedef union unsigned void volatile while

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Operators in C language:- There are following types of operators to perform different types of operations in C language. Arithmetic Operators Relational Operators Shift Operators Logical Operators Bitwise Operators Ternary or Conditional Operators Assignment Operator Misc Operator

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Control statement in C language:- if-else switch loops do-while loop while loop for loop break continue

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C if else statement:- There are many ways to use if statement in C language: If statement If-else statement If else-if ladder Nested if

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if statement :- In if statement is used to execute the code if condition is true. syntax:- if(expression){ //code to be execute }

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If else statement:- The if-else statement is used to execute the code if condition is true or false. Syntax: if (expression){   //code to be executed if condition is true   } else {   //code to be executed if condition is false   }  

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If else-if ladder Statement:- The if else-if statement is used to execute one code from multiple conditions. Syntax: if (condition1){   //code to be executed if condition1 is true   } else   if (condition2){   //code to be executed if condition2 is true   }   else   if (condition3){   //code to be executed if condition3 is true   }   ...   else {   //code to be executed if all the conditions are false   }  

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if else-if ladder Statement:- Syntax: if (condition1){   //code to be executed if condition1 is true   } else   if (condition2){   //code to be executed if condition2 is true   }   else   if (condition3){   //code to be executed if condition3 is true   }   ...   else {   //code to be executed if all the conditions are false   }  

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C Switch Statement:- Syntax: switch (expression){     case  value1:      //code to be executed;       break ;  //optional   case  value2:      //code to be executed;       break ;  //optional   ......     default :       code to be executed  if  all cases are not matched;     }    

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Loops in C language:- Loops are used to execute a block of code or a part of program of the program several times. Types of loops in C language:- There are 3 types of loops in c language. do while while for

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do-while loop in C:- It is better if you have to execute the code at least once. Syntax:- do {   //code to be executed   } while (condition); 

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while loop in c language:- It is better if number of iteration is not known by the user. Syntax:- while (condition){   //code to be executed   } 

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For loop in C language:- It is good if number of iteration is known by the user. Syntax:- for (initialization;condition;incr/decr){   //code to be executed   } 

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C break statement:-  it is used to break the execution of loop (while, do while and for) and switch case. Syntax:- jump-statement;   break ;  

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Continue statement in C language:- it is used to continue the execution of loop (while, do while and for). It is used with  if condition  within the loop. Syntax:- jump-statement;   continue ;   Note:- you can see the example of above all control statements on www.javatpoint.com/c-if else .

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Functions in C language:- To perform any task, we can create function. A function can be called many times. It provides  modularity and code  reusability . Advantage of function:- Code Resuability Code optimization

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Syntax to declare function:- return_type function_name(data_type parameter...){   //code to be executed   }   Syntax to call function:- variable=function_name(arguments...);  

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Call by value in C language:- In call by value, value being passed to the function is locally stored by the function parameter in stack memory location. If you change the value of function parameter, it is changed for the current function only. It will not change the value of variable inside the caller method such as main().

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Example of call by value:- #include <stdio.h>   #include <conio.h>   void  change( int  num) {       printf("Before adding value inside function num=%d \n",num);       num=num+100;       printf("After adding value inside function num=%d \n", num);   }      int  main() {        int  x=100;       clrscr();          printf("Before function call x=%d \n", x);       change(x);//passing value in function       printf("After function call x=%d \n", x);          getch();        return  0;   }  

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Output:- Before function call x=100 Before adding value inside function num=100 After adding value inside function num=200 After function call x=100

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Call by reference in C:- In call by reference, original value is modified because we pass reference (address).

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Example of call by Reference:- #include <stdio.h>   #include <conio.h>   void  change( int  *num) {       printf("Before adding value inside function num=%d \n",*num);       (*num) += 100;       printf("After adding value inside function num=%d \n", *num);   }      int  main() {        int  x=100;       clrscr();          printf("Before function call x=%d \n", x);       change(&x);//passing reference in function       printf("After function call x=%d \n", x);          getch();        return  0;   }  

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Output:- Before function call x=100 Before adding value inside function num=100 After adding value inside function num=200 After function call x=200

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Recursion in C:- A function that calls itself, and doen't perform any task after function call, is know as  tail recursion . In tail recursion, we generally call the same function with return statement. Syntax:- recursionfunction(){      recursionfunction();//calling self function      }  

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Array in C:- Array in C language is a  collection  or  group  of elements (data). All the elements of array are  homogeneous (similar). It has contiguous memory location. Declaration of array:- data_type array_name[array_size];   Eg:- int  marks[7];   Types of array:- 1-D Array 2-D Array

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Advantage of array:- Code Optimization Easy to traverse data Easy to sort data Random Access

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2-D Array in C:- 2-d Array is represented in the form of rows and columns, also known as matrix. It is also known as  array of arrays  or  list of arrays . Declaration of 2-d array:- data_type array_name[size1][size2];  

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Initialization of 2-d array:- int  arr[3][4]={{1,2,3,4},{2,3,4,5},{3,4,5,6}};  

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