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Patel S.J.Thhakar Pharmacy college, Rajkot. 1Introduction: Introduction Word Cosmetic Is Originated From Greek Word “ kosmeticos ” means adorn and preparation. Defination It is external preparation meant for applying on external parts of the body i.e. nails,skin,hairs for coloring, 2 2 covering, softening, cleaning, Nourishing ,waving ,setting, preservation,removal and protection. 2 Other way of defining cosmetic is : Other way of defining cosmetic is “it is item intended to be rubbed, poured, sprinkled , introduced in to, otherwise applied to the human body or part thereof for cleaning, beautifying, promoting attractiveness or altering the appearance”. 3Type of cosmetics: Type of cosmetics Eye cosmetic Other cosmetic Hair cosmetic Teeth cosmetic Nail lacquer and polish Skin cosmetic Analysis 4Analysis of cosmetics includes: Analysis of cosmetics includes Physical analysis of cosmetics Microbiological analysis of cosmetics Chemical analysis of cosmetics 5 1) Physical analysis of cosmetics: SKIN COSMETICS Skin Cream Hand or Body Sunscreen Face Powders Special a)Make up cream lotion cream -Vanishing a)Hand cleanser a)Anti-acne - Foundation b)Hand lotion b)skin tonic b)Cold cream c)anti-ageing c)Moisturizer d)For men d)Night cream e)Protective cream f)All purpose g)Cleansing cream Evaluation of Skin Cosmetics : General Sensitivity test : For Primary potential irritants Draize’s test use. In this test Albino rabbits are clipped and substance to be tested is applied to , - Intact skin, - Abrased Skin - Lightly scarified skin All of them are covered with a patch for 24 hours and changes are assessed. BIS 411:1997 suggests that if there is no reaction in any of the animals, the same test should be performed on 10 Humans volunteers applying the substances on the skin of forearm. As per IS, this test can be carried out on 10 lab. Animals either guinea pig or rabbits. Cosmetic is applied on 2 cm sq.( for better exposure, area for test is shaved). 1) Physical analysis of cosmetics 6Slide 7: PATCH TEST : It has two purposes Diagnostic : To discover whether the cosmetic used has caused dermatitis. b) Prophetic : To assess whether a new cosmetic should be placed on market or not. GENERAL PROCEDURE : 0.1 to 0.3 gm of cosmetic to be tested is applied on a piece of cotton fabric, size 2-3 cm sq. and apply this to skin of arms, thigh or back. This patch is covered with a patch of cellophane abt 5 cm sq. and sealed with adhesive plaster about 40 cm sq. Allow to remain on skin for 24-72 hours. Sites of patched are examined after 30 minutes of removal of patch by an experienced dermatologist.(observation can be done earlier but before NLT 15 min) 7Slide 8: Observations : And their grade No Reaction ------ Erythema only + Erythema with papules ++ Papilovascular +++ Ulceration or necrosis ++++ If no reaction, subjects should be observed for 3 to 5 days to ascertain any late reaction. Its advisable to find out whether material causes photo sensitization. If there is reaction, further test are necessary to find out which ingredient is responsible for reaction. If no reaction……same reapplied to same place or fresh patch may be applied…….its continued till, Either a reaction is produced under one or more patches Or investigator is confirmed that no reaction will occur. 8Slide 9: Open Patch Test : - cosmetics with higher % of potential irritants like hair dyes, shampoos, hair tonics, patches should not be sealed. - Performed on sensitive part of skin, bend of elbow, skin behind ears. - Applied on 1 sq m. - Control standard patches - Inspection after 24 hours. b ) Prophetic Patch test : Before it, investigator should perform test on him self to ascertain the material is not primary irritant. It performed on 10 humans, - If favorable results, for full scale , 200 normal subjects are used. Subjects are observed for a days. After 7-10 days, reapplied on, who didn’t show reaction If no reaction……or one or two of 200…….New product can be placed on trial sale. BIS 4011:1982….Method for dermatological test For cosmetics recommends that initial test should be done on 50volunteers. If any shows positive reaction, number of volunteers is increased to 200. 9Slide 10: 2) Repeated Insult Test The prophetic patch test has certain shortcomings, to name Quick absorption of potential skin irritant through skin Rapid evaporation of volatile skin irritant from patch small amount of cosmetic in patch in comparison to large amount in actual use Small area of skin used. Short exposure of skin to cosmetic than the exposure actual in use. So, Draize described …Repeated Insult Test involves applying of the same concentration as is found in finished formulation incorporated in a bland base. Bland base is selected acc. To nature & solubility of the test substance. . 10 3) Photo patch Test : 3) Photo patch Test certain substances are not harmful by themselves but they become harmful when exposed to sunlight.. Substances that absorb light in between 300-308 nm have potential of photo toxicity.. So when a substance is considered phototoxic, this test may be performed. Same as standard patch test, duplicate patches are applied and after 24 hrs one of the patches in pair is exposed to sunlight for 30 minutes & covered again. 11Slide 12: 4) Provocative Patch Test : Test for sensitizing potential With first exposure, generally weak sensitizing agent don’t sensitize a person but repeated exposure may make a person hypersensitive. This can be indicated by this test. Its performed as standard procedure, 10-15 application on alternate days on same spot of skin in 10 volunteers. Indian standards says in case of unknown chemicals, test should be first performed on animals like guinea pig or rabbits. 12 SKIN CREAM: SKIN CREAM Evaluation of Moisturizing efficiency. In vitro testing or laboratory assessment: Investigators have attempted to define the mechanism of water binding in the stratum corneum . Influence of temperature and humidity on the epidermis . They have attempted to develop instrumental means of assessing degree of moisture in skin and quantitating the hydration effects of moisturizers through changes in mechanical properties of stratum corneum . Extensibility measurements Measurements of Tensile properties of excised stratum corneum : Using a Tensile Strength Tester along with samples of stratum corneum from variety of sources. b) Study of viscoelastic behavior of skin Hargon’s Gas Bearing Electro Dynamometer (GBE). 13Slide 14: c)Occlusive Potential can be determined using Water Diffusion Rate cell or chamber. The membrane used for this purpose could be a neonatal rat stratum corneum or an artificial membrane. d)Gravimetric Analytical Method is used to establish relationship between relative humidity and stratum corneum water content. Utilizing this technique, the water sorption/desorption characteristics of test corneum membrane can be determined before and after treatments e) Thermal analytical techniques like DSC,TGA are used to provide information on the significance of temperature induced phase changes occurring in stratum corneum. 142) In Vivo assessment: 2) In Vivo assessment To study hydration or moisturisation of skin ; a) Transpirometry i.e. measurement of Trans Epidermal Water Loss(TEWL) - Stream of air or nitrogen of known relative humidity is introduced into a collection chamber attached to skin surface. - Water vapors leaving skin surface and entering the collection chamber is carried by gas to suitable detection device. - Various techniques like Dew Point Hygrometry, Thermal conductivity, GC etc. have been used for water detection. Topographical examinations - Scanning Electron Microscopy - A silicon rubber impression of the skin is made by melting polyethylene beads over the surface of the negative impression. The positive is then metallized to prevent charging in SEM. Dermatoscopy all creams are evaluated for types of emulsion, uniformity of color, smoothness, texture, consistency as per their intended use. 15Slide 16: SUNSCREEN PRODUCTS Post sweating SPF determined 1. 1000-4000 A° Ultraviolet zone. - 2200-3200 A° Therapeutic UV Zone i.e. Vitamin D & anti rachitic vitamin are found. - 2500-3020 A° close to rays that cause sunburn - 2800-3100 A° cause sunburn and are screen out with sunscreen products. (UVB) so the longer rays of 3000-3200 cause reddening of skin or erythema , Tan producing rays. Sunscreen may be Preventive i.e . sunburn prevention by shading of body surface simulatory & therapeutic i.e. use of chemicals that screen out certain rays of sun 16Slide 17: Evaluation of Sunscreen products Sun Protection Factor :: work of R.Schulze who defined a “Light Protection Factor“ or “Protective Index” PI SPF is defined as the ratio between the time needed to achieve erythema on protected skin divided by the time needed to get it on unprotected skin. Three methods a) Human Methods b) FDA Method c) Animal Method Determination of Sweating Resistance . Minimum erythema Dose & SPF is determined. After applicaton of sample, subjects are exposed to an 35 to 38°C & 70-8- % RH. Product Category Designation (PCD) As per FDA : Minimal SPF 2 to 4 Moderate 4 to 6 Extra 6 to 8 Maximal 8 to 15 Ultra More than 15 2) Kumler’s Sunscreen Index. He proposed to compute E 1% 0.1 cm at 3080 A° to obtain SI . 17. . SUNSCREEN PRODUCTS………………………: . . SUNSCREEN PRODUCTS……………………… - This index can be used to calculate the % of a compound which should be incorporated to screen out a certain percentage of sunrays that cause sunburn. X = 8 /S.I. 3) Diluted Solution Transmittance Method.(DSTM) Can be used for preliminary assessment of sunscreens. Thin Film Transmittance Method. - Slightly better than DSTM Thin film of sample is applied to quartz plate. Transmittance spectrum of plate is analyzed. Removed Epidermis Transmittance Method. It shows good correspondence to SPF . A portion of epidermis is removed from mouse and sample is applied. Then exposed to UV light and transmitted light is measured to assess degree of protection. 18FACE POWDERS: FACE POWDERS Face powder may be either of loose fine powder or compact . Evaluation: 1 ) Fineness of Powder -Sieving method , -Microscopic Method -Air separation technique. As per IS 3959-2004,Residue on 75 μ sieve should be NMT 2 % & 0n 150 μ NMT 0.5 %. 2) Apparent Density Shade & Uniformity of shade - Comparison with standard shade kept for this purpose. - Commonly std and sample both are placed between two glass plates and compared Observed in natural light. Odor - No physical measure for odor. Pressure applied on compact powder : by penetro meter, Breaking point . Cake is dropped on wooden (8-10 in) or thick rubber mat (6 feet), Matter insooluble in water : Boil 1 gm. with 200ml,filter, dry residue & find out. Moisture & volatile matter : By drying powder at 105°C to constant weight. pH of aqueous solution : By making suspension in water of 10 % or filtrate may be used. 19Slide 20: Dispersion Analyzer- Instruments Figure :Pay off 10) Pay-off : the pay-off character, i.e. adhesion with the puff of compact or pressed powder should be tested on the skin 20SPECIAL CREAMS: SPECIAL CREAMS Includes a) Anti acne b) Skin tonics c) Anti ageing d) Cosmetic for Men. Anti Acne : Acne is varied group of diseases from teenage to cystic acne commonly due to P. acnes which are quite susceptible to antimicrobial agents. Salicylic acid, sulfur, benzoyl peroxide is widely preferred. Evaluation : Particle size of anti acne compound greasiness Antimicrobial efficacy. b) Skin tonic : used as Skin healing, promotion of tissue growth, Refreshing sensation. Assay of active and label claimed ingredients. c) Anti-ageing : d) Cosmetic for Men : There is physiological differences between male & female. Cosmetics for male includes shave preparations, sunscreens, fairness cream, etc. 21Slide 22: Lipsticks 1) Melting point : Determination of melting point is important as it is an indication of the limit of safe storage. Determined by capillary tube method the capillary was filled, keep in the capillary apparatus and firstly observed the product was slowly-slowly melted. After sometimes was observed the product was completely melted. The above procedure was done in 3 times and the melting point ratio was observed in different-different formulation. Ring & Ball Method: Ring is taken & the lipstick to be tested is inserted into it. Extra mass above & below the orifice is removed using a sharp blade leaving a tablet. Keep in a refrigerator (6°C) for about 10 minutes after which this ring is fastened onto a stand. A beaker containing 500 ml water at room temperature is placed on a hot plate having a magnetic stirrer. Steel ball is delicately placed on a lipstick tablet, the bar with support is then slowly inserted into beaker till it submerges into it. Heat & agitate. One Other Method : Whole lipstick along its stand is kept in a long flat bottom tube of approximately 10-12 cm length & 2.5-3.0 cm. 22Slide 23: Care should be taken that lipstick is in a protruded position & the bulb of thermometer just touched the lipstick mass. Place this set up in a one liter beaker filled with water to a level a cm above the upper up of protruding lipstick. 2) Softening point : it gives indication whether lipsticks will able to withstand variation in climate or not. 3) Color Match IS 9875 : 1990 also prescribe tests like - Pay off Test - Particle Size determination of undispersed pigments. - Test for Heavy metals IS 10284 : 1982 prescribed specification for LIPSALVES, - Determination of Melting Range. - Determination of consistency - Test for Rancidity, stability, Arsenic & heavy metals. - Stability studies are performed at Refrigerator temperature (4°C), Room T (15-20) And high summer 30-40. - Parameters : Bleeding, Streaking, Cratering, And blooming. 4) Solubility test: The formulation herbal lipstick was dissolved in various solvents to observe the solubility. 23Slide 24: 5) Breaking point : Breaking point is done to determine the strength of lipstick. The lipstick is held horizontally in a socket ½ inch away from the edge of support. The weight is gradually increased by a specific value (10 gm) at specific interval of 30 second and weight at which breaks is considered as the breaking point. 6) Skin irritation test : It is carried out by applying product on the skin for 10 min. 7) Aging stability : The product is stored at 40˚ c and periodical observation of oil bleed, crystallization of wax on surface, and application characteristics is made. 8) Perfume stability: The formulation herbal lipstick was tested after 30 days, to record the fragrance Some raw materials have the ability to make fragrances adhere to the skin longer before the fragrance is volatilized. This capability is measured using a gas chromatography 9) Oxidative stability : it is predicted by determination of peroxide value after exposure to oxygen under given conditions. Melted lipstick 24Slide 25: 10) Thixotrophy character : It is indication of thyrotrophic quality and is done by using penetrometer. A standard needle of specific diameter is allowed to penetrate for 5 seconds under a 50 gm load at 25˚C. The depth of penetration is a measurement of the thixotropic structure of lipstick. Figure : Microprocessor-Based Digital Penetrometer from Koehler 11) Force of application: It is test for comparative measurement of the force to be applied for application. A piece of coarse brown paper can be kept on a shadow graph balance and lipstick can be applied at 45˚ angle to cover a 1 sq. inch area until fully covered. The pressure reading is an indication of force of application. 12) Surface anomalies: This is studied by the surface defects, such as no formation crystals on surfaces, no contamination by moulds, fungi etc. 25Eye Cosmetics: Eye Cosmetics a) Eye Liner & eye pencils Eye liner should be applied in a thin line Should not form cake Water Resistant b) Mascara : To accentuate the eyelashes and make them more visible, more pronounced. Texture Good drying qualities shiny c) Eye Shadows d) False Eyelashes 26Nail lacquers and removers: Nail lacquers and removers Non-volatile content : this can be done by taking defining amount of lacquers and applying on plate of flat surface. Weight of the residual film after evaporation of solvent will indicate the non volatile content. The indian standards (IS :9245-1994)prescribes a minimum limit of 20% by mass. 2) Hardness : after application of the film on a flat surface the hardness is measured by applying pressure mechanically. Water resistance : this is the measurement of the resistance towards water permeability of the film. This is done by applying a continuous film on a surface and immersing it in water. The weights before and after immersion are noted and increase in weight is calculated higher the increases in weight lower the water resistance. Viscosity : this is also an important character and can be measured by viscometer. Figure : Brookfield viscometer 27Slide 28: 5 ) Smoothness : the film is applied on surface and surface characteristics of film studied microscopically. Drying rate : this can be done by taking the product on a flat surface and touching the product with tip of finger at short interval of time. Time taken for disappearance of tackiness is noted. The Indian standards for nail lacquer (IS: 9245-2994) prescribes maximum drying time of 6 minute. 7) Application : For evaluation of these properties nail enamel is applied to nail & attention is paid to the following. flow even ness of application drag on brush formation of air bubble in the film 8) Abrasive resistance Trabe abrader it consists of turn table carrying a coated panel on which dual wheels of specified abrasiveness act. when tested with apparatus, the loss of weight of coating is in specified no of revolution is taken as measure of resistance to abrasion 28Shampoo: Shampoo 1 ) Foaming ability and foam stability : Cylinder shake method was used for determining foaming ability. 50 ml of the 1% shampoo solution was put into a 250 ml graduated cylinder and covered the cylinder with hand and shaken for 10 times. The total volumes of the foam contents after 1 minute shaking were recorded. The foam volume was calculated only. Immediately after shaking the volume of foam at 1 minute intervals for 4 minutes were recorded. Figure : Ross-miles foam column 29Slide 30: 2) Viscosity : this is also an important character and can be measured by viscometer 3) Effect on hair : this can be studied by half-head technique. In which half of the hair is shampooed and the other half is used as control Effect on skin and eyes : this can be measured by applying it on animals pH : the pH of shampoo can be measured by pH meter and it should be between 6.0-9.0 6 ) Stability studies : The thermal stability of formulations was studied by placing in glass tubes and they were placed in a humidity chamber at 45°C and 75% relative humidity. Their appearance and physical stability were inspected for a period of 3 months at interval of one month. 30Slide 31: Cleansing action : it can be tested on wool yarn in grease For this method place 5 gm of wool yarn in grease in 200 ml of water containing 1 gm of shampoo in a flask, shake the flask for 4 minute at rate of 50 times a minute. Remove the solution and take out the sample. Dry it and weigh it. The loss in weight will indicate the amount of grease removed which is the cleansing action of shampoo. Fig :Hair before cleansing Fig: Hair after cleansing 31Tooth paste &tooth powders: Tooth paste &tooth powders Particle size : this can be determined by microscopic study of the particles or by other means. Abrasiveness : the teeth are mechanically brushed with paste or powders using tooth brush. The effect are studied by observation, mechanical (measurement with micrometer gauge sensitive to 0.001 inch ) or other means (radioactive tracer techniques). The pH of the aqueous solution : the pH of dispersion of 10% of the product in water is determined by pH meter. Consistency : it is important that the product, paste, should maintain the consistency to enable the product press out from the container study of viscosity is essential for this. Rheology of powder is also important for proper flow of the powders from the container. Volatile matters and moisture : a specific amount of product is taken in a dish and drying is done till constant weight. Loss of weight will indicate amount of moisture present in product. 32 Other Cosmetics: Other Cosmetics 1) Depilatories It can be truly categorized as a cosmetic ,since it beautifies by removing un slightly hair from certain parts of the body. Evaluation a) tensile kinetic method Stress decay caused by disulfide bond is measured using commercial instrument such as Tensile strength tester An optical diameter Electro balance the time required to reduce the stress supported by hair by 95% was shown to in vivo hair removal rate in commercial products. 33Slide 34: b) HPLC method this method can distinguish between thioglcerol,thiolactic acid thiol glycolic acid. the S-H group is coupled to 7 choloro-4nitro benzo-2oxo-1,diazole which result in yellow derivative permitting HPLC detection at 464 nm. C) Thermo-mechanical method In this method thermo-mechanical analyzer is used to measure the time at which ,a hair bundle under constant stress & immersed in deplatory,begin to stretch. the analyzer is programmed to observe the stretching & breaking of hair bundle, attached to fiber tension probe accessory. TLC &GLC METHODS are to identify & approximately estimate the amount of active ingredient present. 34 2) Antiperspirant & Deodorant : 2) Antiperspirant & Deodorant Antiperspirant it is therapeutic agent that actively reduce the amount of perspiration. Evaluation (a) Gravimetric method sweat collection is carried out in controlled temperature rooms at 100 ±2 ° F and about 35%RH.. sweat collection are made during two successive half an hour period using tared absorbent pads. A ratio sweat produced by right & left axillae is determined in controlled condition. the effect of antiperspirant material on the perspiration ratio of each individual is determined by comparing the post treatment ratio with the subject average control ratio. reduction in sweat rate (%) = post treatment ratio × 100 average control ratio (b) Hygrometry In this method cup is attached to the skin & water from the enclosed area is evaporated by stream of dry gas. water content of this gas is monitored & sweat rate is calculated. 35C o n t i n u e d . . . .Other cosmetics…….: C o n t i n u e d . . . .Other cosmetics……. Deodorant It is cosmetic preparation that reduce the auxiliary odour . Evaluation In vivo & In vitro method. Two principle method for in vivo evaluation of deodorant efficiency are 1)determination of the effect of treatment in skin micro flora. 2) olfactory assessment of the effects on skin odour . The different technique which are used to quantify micro flora a)Tape stripping b)Velvet replicate pads c)Scrub technique d) Pressurized spray method. 36C o n t i n u e d . . . .Other Cosmetics…………Deodorants: C o n t i n u e d . . . . Other Cosmetics…………Deodorants Amongst method of evaluation deodorants method suggested by fredell & Longefellow is widely used On the first day of test, odour of both axillae is recorded. A scale of 0 to 3 is used for recording the odour & direct sniffing is used for judging the odour . The product is applied to the one axillae & nothing is applied to the control. After 6 hour both axillae is again sniffed &the odour is recorded. The test may be repeated on the successive day . A pretest conditioning period is also recommended for the success of test ,a definite characteristic odour Is imperative. 37Shaving preparations: Shaving preparations SHAVING PREPARATION are product employed by the men to help in shaving. Shaving preparation divided in to two group. A) Preparation used before shaving. B) Preparation used after shaving Evaluation 1. spreadability 2. wetting 3. viscosity 4. foam texture 5. pH 6. compatibility & stability with perfume 7. effect on life of razor blade & reaction with the internal surface of collapsible tube both metallic & plastic. 8. quality of the water A) Evaluation for both Lather & Brushless shaving cream To comply with Indian standard, specification for shaving cream as per drugs and cosmetic Act,1940 & rules 1945,shedule ‘S’, It is suggested that IS 9740:1981& its second amendment of October 1998 should be referred. 1. consistency & texture 2. homogeneity 3. conformity of raw material 4. stability 5. effect on container 38Slide 39: 6. total fatty substance 7. water content 8. lathering power 9. free caustic alkali Evaluation of aerosol shaving cream 1. soap concentration 2. type of fatty acid 3. concentration of free fatty acid 4. type of polyols & its concentration 5. type of propellant & its concentration 6. pH 7. viscosity , density & stability of product . After shave Lotion After shave lotion are non emulsified and mildly alcoholic solution. Two type a) alcoholic containg 5-70% alcohol b) non alcoholic Evaluation 1. Important test is alcohol content 2. stability of smell 3. cloud temperature 392) Microbiological analysis of cosmetics: 2) Microbiological analysis of cosmetics Cosmetics should be free from micro-organisms and consumer use. The detection and elimination of microbial contamination of cosmetics is very important to maximize shelf life. Ensure product quality, consistency and performance and to meet federal regulations. Sample preparation for microbiological analysis For liquid: take 1 ml of liquid and diluted with 9 ml of modified letheen broth(MLB) in screw-cap test tube. Solid and powders: weigh 1 gm of sample in to screw-cap test tube containing 1 ml sterile tween 80. disperse product in tween 80 with sterile spatula. Add 8 ml sterile MLB and mix thoroughly. Wax / fatty products (lipsticks): weigh 10 gm of sample in to sterile tween 20. disperse with a sterile spatula to form a paste. Add 78 ml sterile MLB and mix thoroughly. 40Method for microbiological analysis:: Method for microbiological analysis : Pour-plate technique: The sample should be diluted successively with sterile water. The agar medium is maintained in molten state at 45˚c. 1 ml of diluted sample is added to sterile petri dish to which is then poured 9 ml of sterile, cool agar medium. The contents are thoroughly mixed and allowed to solidify. The dish is incubated at suitable temperature and conditions. After few days, different kinds of microbe grow as separate colonies. 41b) spread plate technique: b) spread plate technique An aliquot of the diluted sample is placed an to the agar surface and is spread uniformly with a sterile bent rod. Incubate it at suitable temperature and condition. After few days, different kinds of microbes grow as separate colonies. 42Slide 43: 43 c) Streak Plate Method : c) Streak Plate Method In this technique, the sample is appropriately diluted and a small aliquot transferred to an agar plate. The bacteria are then distributed evenly over the surface by a special streaking technique. After colonies are grown, they are counted and the number of bacteria in the original sample calculated. 44d) membrane filtration method: d) membrane filtration method A known amount of pretreated material or its dilution is passed trough membrane filter assembly. Wash it 3 successive times each of 100 ml of buffered Nacl-peptone solution. Transfer the membrane on the surface of solid agar medium in a sterile Petri dish. The dish is incubated at suitable temperature and conditions. After few days different kinds of microbe grow as separate colonies. The Indian standards (is:11377-1985) prescribes that bacterial count of a cosmetics should not exceed 1000 microorganism per 1 gm of cosmetic and there should not any pathogens. 453) Chemical analysis of cosmetics: 3) Chemical analysis of cosmetics Figure :Cosmetic analysis. Features and most suitable properties of the analytical methods. 46Slide 47: Chemical analysis of cosmetics is very important to ensure that only permitted ingredient are added to the product, information on the label is correct or not, and to help in forensic investigation. General methods Determination of methanol in relation to ethanol or 2-propanol by gas chromatography. Determination of dichloromethane and 1,1,1 trichloroethane by gas chromatography. Determination of chlorobutanol by gas chromatography. Determination of hexachlorophene by gas chromatography. Determination of water by gas chromatography. Determination of propylene glycol by gas chromatography. 47Deodorants and antiperspirants: Deodorants and antiperspirants Aluminium and zinc in deodorants by gravimetric method or by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. Zirconium in anti perspirants by colorimetric method or by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Boric acid in deodorants and anti perspirants by ion-exchange method. Chlorides and sulfates in deodorants by gravimetric method. Methenamine and urea in deodorants by titrimetric method. 48Hair preparation: Hair preparation Quinine in shampoo and in hair lotion by HPLC oxalic acid and alkaline salt in hair-care product by filtration. Free sodium and potassium hydroxide in hair straightener by filtration. Mercapto acetic acid in hair-waving and in hair-straightening by iodometric titration or gas chromatography. Selenium disulphide as selenium in anti-dandruff shampoos by atomic absorption spectrometry. 49Analytical Methods for Hair Dyes : Analytical Methods for Hair Dyes According to how long-lasting they are three types temporary, semi-permanent, permanent hair colours Methods use for quantitative and semi quantitative determination of hair dyes are one- or two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography, gravimetrically, colorimetrically Thin-layer chromatography (TLC), gas chromatography (GC), liquid chromatography (LC) 50Tooth pastes: Tooth pastes Chloroform and chlorates of alkali metals in tooth paste by gas chromatography. Total fluorine in dental creams by gas chromatography. Creams and pastes Nitrite creams and pastes by colorimetric method. Vanishing creams Water by karl-fiesher titration Ash Chloroform soluble material by GC 51Sun screen lotion: Sun screen lotion The Most Commonly Used Components In The Photo stability Tests Irradiation source Mercury lamp, fluorescent lamp, metal halide lamp, xenon arc Sample support Quartz cuvette , glass plate, Teflon membrane, TransporeTM tape, skin(reconstructed or excised), in vivo human volunteer s skin Type of sample Solution, liquid film, semisolid thin layer Analytical technique Absorption spectroscopy, transmission spectroscopy with integrating sphere, liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, supercritical fluid chromatography Photo stability Testing 52Analytical Methods Colouring Agents in Decorative and other Cosmetics: Analytical Methods Colouring Agents in Decorative and other Cosmetics Decorative cosmetics are principally used to beautify. The different types of decorative cosmetics include foundations, lipsticks, glosses, mascaras, nail lacquers and powders. 53Slide 54: Figure : General approach to the preparative separation of dyes by high-speed countercurrent chromatography 54Determination of colouring agents in cosmetic products: Determination of colouring agents in cosmetic products Thin-layer chromatography Liquid chromatography Spectrophotometry Other methods dyes in lipstick using micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) with diode array UV detection 55 Analytical Methods Preservatives in Cosmetics. : Analytical Methods Preservatives in Cosmetics. preservatives belonging to different chemical classes therefore, multicomponent analysis methods are required ,like 1. ion-pair and reversed-phase LC with UV/Vis detection, 2. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) 3. capillary electrophoresis (CE) 4. capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) 5. gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detector (FID), electron capture detector (ECD) or mass spectrometry (MS) detector used for preservative determination 56Analysis of perfumes : ultra violet/visible spectrometry (UV/VIS), infrared spectrometry (IR) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), gas chromatography (GC), both by injection or in headspace (HS) mode liquid chromatography (LC) and thin-layer chromatography (TLC) have also been applied for quantitative and/or qualitative purposes in perfume analysis, GC-MS LC-UV/VIS GC-FID LC-FL (TLC with fluorimetric ) TLC with fluorescence densitometry (FD) Analysis of perfumes Fig: Headspace micro-extraction 57 conclusion: conclusion A variety of substances are used in the manufacturing of cosmetics so, finished cosmetics, when used on human body, have potential for several type of adverse reaction. The adverse effect include skin irritation and allergy sensitization ,contact urticaria , photo toxicity and photo allergy. With growing consumers awareness and enforcement of consumer protection act, it is necessary for cosmetic manufacturers to assess quality, stability and potential of adverse effect of his product. 58References:: References: 1. Text book of “Cosmetics Formulation, manufacturing & Quality control”, by P. P. Sharma 4 th edition, Vandana Publications Pvt. ltd. 2. “Cosmetic Technology”, by Sanju Nanda, Arun Nanda,RoopK.Khar1 st Edition,BirlaPublications 3. “Cosmetics”, by Sagarin,Volume 1 & 3 59Slide 60: 60 You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.