Haccp

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HACCP:

HACCP

HACCP Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point :

HACCP is a method of ensuring food safety by examining every step in a food operation, identifying the steps that are critical to food safety and implementing effective control and monitoring procedures at these steps. HACCP Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point

HACCP Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point :

The concept of HACCP and its development was directly, connected with ‘Food Production and research’ project by Pillsbury Company for space travel programme. The main task of the Project was to guarantee that the food provided to the space travellers was not contaminated microbially, chemically or physically in a way that would lead a space mission either to failure or to catastrophe. HACCP Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point

Understanding of Seven Principles of HACCP:

Understanding of Seven Principles of HACCP

PowerPoint Presentation:

The potential hazards associated with a food are identified. The list is prepared where significant hazards occur along with known preventive measures. The hazard could be physical (P), chemical (C), biological (B) in nature or their combination. Some examples of these three types of hazards follow in the next pages. These hazards could have their origins from contaminated raw materials, equipment, personnel, handling etc., some details are provided in the following pages. Principle No.1 Conduct Hazard Analysis

Physical Hazards:

Physical Hazards Sources of Physical hazards Field Processing or handling Distribution Sabotage or tampering Miscellaneous eg struvite Hazardous material includes : Metal Glass Wood Stones Insects Bone Insulation

Chemical Hazards:

Main Sources include: Food Chemicals Colours, flavours, preservatives, etc. Plant Chemicals Cleaners, sanitisers, oil, petrol, etc., Agricultural Chemicals Fertilizedrs, fungicides, pesticides, antibiotics, growth hormones etc Naturally occuring toxicants My cotoxins, histamine, ciguatera, poisonous shellfish, etc. Chemical Hazards

Biological Hazards:

Biological Hazards 2 types of microbiological diseases: Infections Intoxication Micro-organisms of greatest concern: Salmonella Clostridium Staphylococcus aurcus Clostridium perfringens

Understanding of Seven Principles of HACCP Contd…..:

Understanding of Seven Principles of HACCP Contd….. Principle No.2 Determine Critical Control Points The identification of CCPs requires professional judgement and may be aided by the application of decision tree. When using a decision tree each process step is identified in the flow diagram and must be considered in sequence. Application of decision tree will determine whether or not the process step is a CCP for each specific identified hazards. There is no limit on the production of CCPs that may be identified in the study. Those organisations who are so much used to their processes do not normally require the help of the application of the decision tree to determine the CCPs. The use of the decision tree with four fundamental questions, which are asked, to determine CCPs is given in the following pages

PowerPoint Presentation:

yes yes No Q 1 Are control measures being used to prevent a hazard Modify step, process or product Is control at this step required for safety? Q 2 Does the step eliminate or reduce the hazard to an acceptable level? CRITICAL CONTROL POINT Yes No Q 3 Does contamination occur at unacceptable level or could it increased to unacceptable levels? yes Q 4 Will a subsequent step eliminate or reduce the hazard to an acceptable level No Yes No No Not a CCP yes Proceed to the next step in the process

Questions 1 to 4 of the Decision Tree for CCP determination with explanations :

Questions 1 to 4 of the Decision Tree for CCP determination with explanations Question No.1: Are control measures in place for the hazard? If the answer is YES the team should then consider Q2 If the answer is NO (i.e. control measures are not in place for the hazard) the team must ask a supplementary question to determine if control is necessary at this step for product safety. If control is not necessary then the step is not a CCP and the team should apply the decision tree to the next identified hazard. If, however, the answer to this supplementary question is YES, then it is necessary to modify the step, process or product so that control is obtained.

Decision Tree for Determination of CCPs Principle 2 Contd…..:

Decision Tree for Determination of CCPs Principle 2 Contd….. During the analysis, the team may recommended a number of changes to the step, process or product that would allow control to be achieved and the analysis to proceed. Prior to the next formal meeting of the team, agreement must be reached with senior management that an appropriate change is acceptable and will be implemented.

Decision Tree for Determination of CCPs Principle 2 Contd…..:

Decision Tree for Determination of CCPs Principle 2 Contd….. Question No.2: Does the process step eliminate or reduce the hazard to an acceptable level? The team should use flow diagram data to answer this question for each process step. The question will identify those processing steps that are designed to eliminate or reduce the hazard to an acceptable level. Acceptable and unacceptable levels should be defined within the overall objectives in identifying the critical control points of the HACCP plan.

Decision Tree for Determination of CCPs Principle 2 Contd…..:

Decision Tree for Determination of CCPs Principle 2 Contd….. When considering this question for microbiological hazards, the team should take into account the appropriate product technical data (e.g. pH, Aw, level and type of preservatives, dimensions of particulates, water droplet size) as well as the physical process being applied. Pasteurization, cooking, aseptic packing, evisceration, preservative content and product structure are examples of process steps that could be microbiological CCPs in the right context.

Decision Tree for Determination of CCPs Principle 2 Contd…..:

Decision Tree for Determination of CCPs Principle 2 Contd….. If the team considers the answer to Q2 to be YES then the process step under consideration is a CCP. They must identify precisely what is critical (i.e. is it an ingredient, a process steps(s), the location or a practice/procedure associated with the process step(s)) before applying the decision tree to the next process step. If the answer to Q2 is NO then Q3 must be considered for the same process step.

Decision Tree for Determination of CCPs Principle 2 Contd…..:

Decision Tree for Determination of CCPs Principle 2 Contd….. Question No.3: Could contamination with the hazard occur at unacceptable level (s) or increase to unacceptable level(s)? The team should consider the flow diagram data and their own working knowledge of the process, to answer this question. The team should first consider whether any of the ingredients used could conceivably contain any of the hazards under discussion in excess of acceptable levels. In doing so the team should take account epidemiological data, previous supplier performance etc. If the teams are unsure of the answer to this part of the question they should assume the YES response. .

Decision Tree for Determination of CCPs Principle 2 Contd…..:

Decision Tree for Determination of CCPs Principle 2 Contd….. The team should also consider whether the immediate processing environment (e.g. people, equipment, air, walls, floors, drains) may be a source of the hazard under study and thereby contaminate the product. Once again the team should assume the YES response unless they are confident that the answer is NO. When considering a possible increase in levels of the hazard, the team should be aware that it is possible that a single process step will not allow development of the hazard to unacceptable levels, but over a number of process steps the amount of increase may reach unacceptable levels due to the cumulative time and temperature of…..

Decision Tree for Determination of CCPs Principle 2 Contd…..:

Decision Tree for Determination of CCPs Principle 2 Contd….. holding the product during processing. The team must therefore take account of not only the specific process setup under discussion, but also the accumulated effect of subsequent process steps when answering the question. The team should include consideration of the following:

Decision Tree for Determination of CCPs Principle 2 Contd…..:

Decision Tree for Determination of CCPs Principle 2 Contd….. Are the ingredients used likely to be a source of the hazard under study? Is the process steps carried out in an environment likely to be a source of the hazard? Is cross-contamination from another product/ingredient possible? Are there any void spaces in equipment that will enable product to stagnate and allow increase of the hazard to unacceptable levels? Are the cumulative time/temperature conditions such that the hazard will increase in the product to unacceptable levels?

Decision Tree for Determination of CCPs Principle 2 Contd…..:

Decision Tree for Determination of CCPs Principle 2 Contd….. If after taking account of all the factors the teams are confident that the answer to Q3 is NO, then this step is not a CCP and the team should apply the decision tree to the next process step. If the answer to Q3 is YES, then the teams should consider Q4 for the same process step.

Decision Tree for Determination of CCPs Principle 2 Contd…..:

Decision Tree for Determination of CCPs Principle 2 Contd….. Question No.4: Will a subsequent process step eliminate or reduce the hazard to an acceptable level? Q4 Will only be considered if the team believes the answer to Q3 to be YES. The team must then proceed sequentially through the remaining process steps of the flow diagram and determine if any subsequent processing step(s) will eliminate the hazard or reduce if to an acceptable level. Correct consumer use must be included here if the product is being judged “safe at the point of consumption”. Q4 has a very important function when identifying CCPs, which is to allow the presence of a hazard at a process step if that hazard will subsequently be eliminated or reduced to an acceptable level, either

Decision Tree for Determination of CCPs Principle 2 Contd…..:

Decision Tree for Determination of CCPs Principle 2 Contd….. as part of the process, or by the consumer’s actions (e.g. by cooking). If this is not done, every process step in an operation might be regarded as critical leading to too many CCPS for an effective, practical control system. Q3 & 4 are designed to work in tandem. For example, the presence of Salmonella a raw meat ingredient for a ready - to - eat product prior to the cooking stage may be of concern but is not likely to be a CCP because the product will be cooked during processing.

Decision Tree for Determination of CCPs Principle 2 Contd…..:

Decision Tree for Determination of CCPs Principle 2 Contd….. However the control of Salmonella in garnishes added to that same product after cooking would be regarded as a CCP because no subsequent process steps would eliminate the Salmonella or reduce the likely occurrence to an acceptable level. If the team judge that the answer to Q4 is YES they should then apply the decision tree to the next hazard, or to the next process step. If the answer to Q4 is NO then a CCP has been identified. In this case, the team must identify precisely what is critical, I.e. is it a raw material, a process step(s). When identified, the decision is made as to whether the existing control measure is sufficient.

Understanding of Seven Principles of HACCP Contd…..:

Understanding of Seven Principles of HACCP Contd….. Principle No. 3 Establish Critical Limits for CCPs The team would proceed to establish critical limits for the control measures for each identified CCP. Critical limit is the criterion which separates acceptability from unacceptability. For example, temperature and time to be used for pasteurization of milk. The specific target measures and tolerances laid for each of the control measures must represent some measurable parameter related to each of CCPs, which can be measured relatively quickly and easily or referred to certain established norms.

Understanding of Seven Principles of HACCP Contd…..:

Understanding of Seven Principles of HACCP Contd….. Principle No. 4 Establish A Monitoring System for each CCP. The team establishes monitoring systems for each CCP. Sound monitoring system is essential to ensure that the specified criteria are met A good monitoring system describes the methods by which management is able to confirm that all CCPs are operating within specifications and also it helps to maintain accurate records of performance for future used in verifications. Depending on the sensitivity of a process step, monitoring systems could also be a continuous one.

Understanding of Seven Principles of HACCP Contd…..:

Understanding of Seven Principles of HACCP Contd….. Principe No.5 Establish Corrective Action Plan The team would then establish corrective actions specifying actions to be taken as results of monitoring activities in order to correct any deviation from the laid down limits that are critical to safety. Disposition actions need to be taken with food that has been produced during the time period that the CCP was ‘out of control’. Both corrective action and disposition action should be documented in the HACCP record keeping and the responsibility clearly assigned.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Principle No.6 Verification The team lays down procedures meant to be used to for verifying compliance of HACCP Plans and thus the over all HACCP system. Verification process should examine the entire HACCP system and its records. The team specifies the methods and frequency of verification procedures. The verification activities may include internal/external auditing systems and even microbiological examination of the product samples. Where possible, validation activities of established critical limits, including target levels and tolerances where used, should include actions to confirm the efficacy of the criteria.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Principle No.7 Establish Documentation and Record keeping Established documentation and record keeping - Efficient and accurate record keeping is essential to the successful application of HACCP in a food processing unit. Only through the documentation a food processing unit is in a position to demonstrate that HACCP system is in place in accordance with the principles. Examples of documentation include: Documentation of the system (Hazard analysis; CCP determination; Critical limit determination) Procedures and work instructions and should be supported by records.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Examples record include: Nature, source and quality of raw materials Completing processing record, including storage and distribution Cleaning and disinfection records All decisions reached relating to product safety Deviations file Corrective/disposition action file Modification file Verification and Validation data Review data

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