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Pollutants, the elements of pollution, can be foreign substances or energies, or naturally occurring;when naturally occurring, they are considered contaminants when they exceed natural levels.Types of pollution: Types of pollution Air Water Soil Noise Thermal Solid WastePollutants: Pollutants A pollutant is a waste material that pollutes air, wateror soil, and is the cause of pollution. Three factors determine the severity of a pollutant: Its chemical nature, Its concentration and Its persistence. Some pollutants are biodegradable and therefore will not persist in the environment in the long term.Types of pollutants : Types of pollutants 1) Primary pollutants- These are those which are emitted directly from the source and persist in the form in which they were added to the environment. Typical Examples of pollutants included under this category are ash,smoke,fumes,dust,nitric oxide,sulphur dioxide,etc. 2)Secondary Pollutants- These are those which are formed from the primary pollutants by chemical interaction with some constituent present in the atmosphere. Examples are sulphur trioxide,nitrogen dioxide,aldehydes,etc.Air Pollution: Air Pollution Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or cause damage to the natural environment or built environment, into the atmosphere.Sources : Sources 1) Anthropogenic sources (human activity) :- "Mobile Sources" include motor vehicles, marine vessels, aircraft and the effect of sound etc. "Stationary Sources" include smoke stacks of power plants, manufacturing facilities (factories) and waste incinerators, as well as furnaces and other types of fuel-burning heating devices. Military, such as nuclear weapons, toxic gases, germ warfare and rocketry.Slide 8: 2) Natural sources:- a) Dust from natural sources, usually large areas of land with little or no vegetation. b) Smoke and carbon monoxide from wildfires. c) Volcanic activity, which produce sulphur, chlorine, and ash particulates.Effects: Effects Irritation of the respiratory tract. Irritation of eye,nose and throat. Lead particulates cause lead poisoning resulting in coma and even death.Control devices : Control devices Particulate control Electrostatic precipitators :-An electrostatic precipitator (ESP), or electrostatic air cleaner is a particulate collection device that removes particles from a flowing gas (such as air) using the force of an induced electrostatic charge. Electrostatic precipitators are highly efficient filtration devices that minimally impede the flow of gases through the device, and can easily remove fine particulate matter such as dust and smoke from the air stream. Baghouses :-Designed to handle heavy dust loads, a dust collector consists of a blower, dust filter, a filter-cleaning system, and a dust receptacle or dust removal system (distinguished from air cleaners which utilize disposable filters to remove the dust). Particulate scrubbers:-Wet scrubber is a form of pollution control technology. The term describes a variety of devices that use pollutants from a furnace flue gas or from other gas streams. In a wet scrubber, the polluted gas stream is brought into contact with the scrubbing liquid, by spraying it with the liquid, by forcing it through a pool of liquid, or by some other contact method, so as to remove the pollutants. Water pollution: Water pollution Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies ( e.g.rivers , groundwater). Water pollution occurs when pollutants are discharged directly or indirectly into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds. Water pollution affects plants and organisms living in these bodies of water; and, in almost all cases the effect is damaging not only to individual species and populations, but also to the natural biological communities.Sources : Sources Organic water pollutants include: Detergents Food processing waste, which can include oxygen-demanding substances, fats and grease. Petroleum hydrocarbons, including fuels (gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuels, and fuel oil) and lubricants (motor oil), and fuel combustion byproducts, fromstormwater runoff . Inorganic water pollutants include:- Acidity caused by industrial discharges (especially sulfur dioxide from power plants). Ammonia from food processing waste. Chemical waste as industrial by-products. Silt(sediment) in runoff from construction sites, logging, slash and burn practices or land clearing sites.Slide 13: Macroscopic pollution :- Large visible items polluting the water. Ex:- Trash or garbage (e.g. paper, plastic, or food waste) discarded by people on the ground, along with accidental or intentional dumping of rubbish, that are washed by rainfall into storm drains and eventually discharged into surface waters. Thermal pollution :- Thermal pollution is the rise or fall in the temperature of a natural body of water caused by human influence. Thermal pollution, unlike chemical pollution, results in a change in the physical properties of water. A common cause of thermal pollution is the use of water as a coolant by power plants and industrial manufacturers. Elevated water temperatures decreases oxygen levels (which can kill fish) and affects ecosystem composition.Effects: Effects Phosphorus and nitrates from fertilisers and detergents contaminate surface waters where they act as nutrients and promote the growth of oxygen consuming algae which reduce the DO level of water,killing fish and other aquatic organisms. Waterborne infectious enteric diseases like typhoid,cholera are the predominant health hazards arising from drinking contaminated water.Control devices : Control devices Domestic sewage 1) utilizing a green infrastructure approach to improve stormwater management capacity throughout the system, and reduce the hydraulic overloading of the treatment plant. 2) repair and replacement of leaking and malfunctioning equipment Industrial wastewater:- 1)C ooling ponds, man-made bodies of water designed for cooling by evaporation, convection, and radiation. 2)Cooling towers, which transfer waste heat to the atmosphere through evaporation and/or heat transfer. 3)Cogeneration, a process where waste heat is recycled for domestic and/or industrial heating purposes.Soil Pollution: Soil Pollution Soil contamination ( soil pollution ) is caused by the presence of (human-made) chemicals or other alteration in the natural soil environment.The most common chemicals involved are petroleum hydrocarbons, solvents, pesticides, lead and other heavy metals.Sources : Sources Rupture of underground storage tanks Application of pesticides percolation of contaminated surface water to subsurface strata oil and fuel dumpingEffects: Effects Chronic exposure to chromium, lead can cause congenital disorders. At sufficient dosages a large number of soil contaminants can cause death by exposure via direct contact, inhalation or ingestion of contaminants in groundwater contaminated through soil. Contaminants typically alter plant metabolism, most commonly to reduce crop yields. Virtual eradication of some of the primary food chain.Control devices : Control devices Excavate soil and take it to a disposal site away from ready pathways for human or sensitive ecosystem contact. Extraction of groundwater or soil vapour with an active electromechanical system, with subsequent stripping of the contaminants from the extract. Containment of the soil contaminants (such as by capping or paving over in place).Sources : Sources Direct discharge:-Pollutants enter rivers and the sea directly from urban seweage and industrial waste discharges, sometimes in the form of hazardous and toxic wastes. Land runoff:- Surface runoff from farming, as well as urban runoff and runoff from the construction of roads, buildings, ports, channels, and harbours , can carry soil and particles laden with carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and minerals. Eutrophication :- Eutrophication is an increase in chemical nutrients, typically compounds containing nitrogen or phosphorus, in an ecosystem. It can result in an increase in the ecosystem's primary productivity (excessive plant growth and decay), and further effects including lack of oxygen and severe reductions in water quality, fish, and other animal populations.Noise pollution: Noise pollution Noise pollution is excessive, displeasing human, animal or machine-created environmental noise that disrupts the activity or balance of human or animal life. The word noise comes from the Latin word nauseas , meaning seasickness.Sources : Sources Industrial Sources Transport vehicles Household Agricultural Machines Defence EquipmentEffects: Effects Hypertension High stress levels Tinnitus hearing loss Impairing of night visionControl devices : Control devices Use of noise barriers Limitation of vehicle speeds, Alteration of roadway surface texture, limitation of heavy vehicles Use of traffic controls that smooth vehicle flow to reduce braking and acceleration, and Minimum use of loudspeakers and amplifierscase study: case study River pollution in India:- Almost all the rivers in India are polluted. The causes of pollution may also be more or less similar. This is a case study of the River Damodar as reported in Down to Earth. The 563-km long Damodar River originates near Chandwa village in the Chhotanagpur hills in Bihar's Palamau district. It flows through one of the richest mineral belts in the world before draining into the Hooghly, about 50 km south of Kolkota . Indian industry depends heavily on this region as 60% of the coal consumed in our country comes from the Chhotanagpur belt. Coal-based industries of all types dot the area because of locational advantages and the easy availability of water and power. In addition, various industries such as steel, cement, fertilizer and explosive plants are also located here. The River Damodar is polluted with minerals, mine rejects and toxic effluents. Both its water and its sand are infested by coal dust and waste from these industries. There are seven thermal power plants in the Damodar valley. The states of Bihar and West Bengal depend almost entirely on this area for their power requirements. These power plants not only consume a lot of water but also dump ash in the valley.Role of an individual in prevention of pollution: Role of an individual in prevention of pollution Pollution is the burning issue of the day at the global level.A combined effort to control pollution has to be made by all government agencies,technologists,industrialists,agriculturalists and last but not the least the common man.Slide 27: Some of the Efforts are:- a)Installation of proper sewage disposal methods b)Dumping of non biodegradable wastes in low lying areas c)Installation of gobar gas plant in areas of high availability of cow dung d)Reduction of smoke emission and treatment of chimney smoke to remove solid carbon particles e)Judicious use of fertilisers,pescticides and detergents f)Growing plants like pyrus (apple), Vitis (grapes) etc. is advocated because of their capability of metabolising gaseous nitrogeneous pollutants like nitrogen dioxide etc.Thank you: Thank you You do not have the permission to view this presentation. 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