Critical Pedagogy : Critical Pedagogy Mohammed sareef k What is Critical Pedagogy? : What is Critical Pedagogy? A Summary of the Work of
Paulo Freire Paulo Freire - Background : Paulo Freire - Background Freire was born in Recife, Brazil.
He was born into a middle class household.
His family was impacted by the Great Depression.
Freire soon knew what it was like to go hungry.
(Stevens, 2002) Av Rio Branco on Recife Island, with a bit of Ponte Buarque de Macedo in the distance, c. 1920s.
(Morrison, 2006) Pedagogy of the Oppressed : In 1968 Freire published his most famous book, Pedagogy of the Oppressed, where he outlined the characteristics of what he called Critical Pedagogy.
Critical Pedagogy called for people living under conditions of oppression to develop a new foundation for learning. (Stevens, 2002) Book cover of Pedagogy of the Oppressed, 30th Anniversary Ed.
(Amazon, 2008) Pedagogy of the Oppressed What is Oppression? : What is Oppression? We use this word a great deal in our study of 20th Century history.
What does oppression really mean? Write down your own definition.
Research definitions of oppression on the Internet. How do these definitions compare or contrast with your own?
Name groups of people whom we have studied that you feel were oppressed?
What oppressed these people? Who oppressed them? What is Critical Pedagogy? : What is Critical Pedagogy? Critical pedagogy is a teaching approach which attempts to help students question and challenge domination, and the beliefs and practices that dominate them.
It tries to help students become critically conscious.
(Wikpedia, 2008) How to be Critically Conscious? : How to be Critically Conscious? According to Ira Shor (1992) a student can be critically conscious by:
Thinking, reading, writing, and speaking while going beneath the surface meaning
A student must go beyond:
Myths, clichés, received wisdom, and mere opinions Amazon, 2008 Characteristics of Critical Pedagogy : Characteristics of Critical Pedagogy The following is a list of the goals and methods that critical pedagogy tries to bring to education.
The objective of this pedagogy (method of education) is to empower students and help them help themselves.
The aim is to liberate students from oppression. 1. Anti-Colonial Education : 1. Anti-Colonial Education Native populations need to have their own education systems.
They need to develop their own culture.
Their education should not simply be an extension of the culture of their colonizer.
CLASS EXAMPLE: Map of Brazil issued by the Portuguese explorers in 1519. (Wikipedia, 2008) 2. The Role of Indigenous Knowledge : 2. The Role of Indigenous Knowledge The knowledge of indigenous and subjugated peoples (people forced to submit to the will of another group) is very important.
When oppressed people learn about their own culture, history, medicinal practices, religion, heritage, etc., this can have a transformative effect on their lives and lead to their own empowerment.
Indigenous knowledge is equally important for people in the West who have ignored it in favour of Western knowledge.
There is much to be learnt from the knowledge of indigenous peoples across the globe.
CLASS EXAMPLE Indigenous medical practitioners known as sesayas in Myanmar cure diseases using natural elements throughout the country (AllMyanmar, 2008). 3. Identifying Sources of Power : 3. Identifying Sources of Power Students must be able to analyze competing power interests between groups and individuals within a society.
They must be able to identify who gains and who loses in specific situations.
They must be made aware that privileged groups often have an interest in supporting the status quo to protect their advantages. 4. Political Nature of Education : 4. Political Nature of Education All education is political.
Teachers and students must be made aware of the “politics” that surround education.
The way students are taught and what they are taught serves a political agenda.
Teachers, themselves, have political notions, they bring into the classroom.
(Kincheloe, 2008) President Bush visiting the Emma E. Booker Elementary School in Sarasota on the morning of 9/11 promoting his “Reading First” educational program (Lexidiem, 2006) 5. Understanding the Politics of Knowledge : 5. Understanding the Politics of Knowledge Students must understand that knowledge itself is political.
Understanding the “power” of knowlegde is crucial.
Many educational instiutions use their “power” to keep the privileged on top and the underprivileged on the bottom.
What we learn in schools/universities is usually “validated" scientific knowledge.
Often the people who produced this “scientific” knowledge are the people in positions of power who dominate over oppressed peoples!
How much of the knowledge thay you have learnt in school is Western and written by dead, white males?
(Kincheloe, 2008) 6. Justice & Equality in Education : 6. Justice & Equality in Education A social and educational vision of justice and equality should be the basis of all education
(Kincheloe, 2008) School children in Soweto, South Africa (1976) rioting against government’s plans to introduce Afrikaans as the official language of instruction (NPR, 2008). 7. The Rejection of Economic Determinism : 7. The Rejection of Economic Determinism Critical Pedagogy understands that economic factors alone do not predetermine who has power and who does not.
Students must be made to realize that people are also oppressed because of issues of:
and physical ability A rally in protest of the desegregation of Little Rock Central High at the state capitol, August 20, 1959 (McElrath, 2008). 8. End of “Banking System” of Education : 8. End of “Banking System” of Education Students should not be viewed as an empty “account” to be filled in by the teacher.
Teachers should know that students have life experiences and their own knowledge that is key in shaping their education and learning.
Good schools do not blame students for their failures or strip students of the knowledges they bring to the classroom. A traditional classroom scene from 1935 (Biz/Ed, 2008) 9. Change in Relationship between Student and Teacher : 9. Change in Relationship between Student and Teacher A deep respect shoud exist between teacher and student.
We should think in terms of teacher-student and student-teacher - that is:
a teacher who learns and
a learner who teaches
() Teacher & Student in Louisiana (LSU College of Education, 2006) Critical Pedagogy – Final Thoughts : Critical Pedagogy – Final Thoughts One of the key objectives of critical pedagogy is to allow students to gain the necessary social skills to allow them to actively participate in a transformed & inclusive democratic community.
When you can identify the sources of power, recognize your own position in relation to power and understand the political nature of what you learn you can develop your own social actions.
Critical pedagogy seeks to give those who have been excluded from power the right and ability to have an input into civic life.