transgenic animal secrets

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genetically modified animal useful model for diseases

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you are excellent Mohamed Taha 1 Novel secrets Transgenic animal

Model for diseases can produce valuable pharmaceuticals information:

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 2 Model for diseases can produce valuable pharmaceuticals information Why ? transgenic

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you are excellent Mohamed Taha 3 Tran genesis can be defined as modification of the genetic of an organism through recombinant DNA

European Laboratory Animal Associations :

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 4 European Laboratory Animal Associations as an animal in which there has been a deliberate modification of its , the genetic there has been a deliberate modification of its genome

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you are excellent Mohamed Taha 5 WHY? Identification of gene function Study gene function and regulation Genome mapping

Test :

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 6 Test knock in gene Knock out gene

Cancer research :

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 7 Cancer research Transposons transferred from galley fish

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you are excellent Mohamed Taha 8 The genes can be modified to jump wily-nilly around cells. By putting them into a batch of identify which genes or combinations of genes lead to cancer .

Jumping genes from jelly fish:

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 9 Jumping genes from jelly fish By putting them into a batch of human or mouse cells, and watching to see which ones become cancerous

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you are excellent Mohamed Taha 10 Model development progression of human diseases Cystic fibrosis Multiple sclerosis something else model is something that resembles

have been made using animals :

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 11 have been made using animals medical advances over the last century

Biomedical research:

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 12 Biomedical research a treatments before attempting to diagnose model of a disease to learn about it and test

Benefits of transgenic? Phytase enzyme poultry :

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 13 Benefits of transgenic ? Phytase enzyme poultry animal production

salmon:

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 14 salmon Improved gain efficiency and protein production Super-salmon

salmon:

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 15 salmon Antifreeze protein in flounder + Chinook salmon

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you are excellent Mohamed Taha 16 Human therapeutic proteins Antithrombin III, antifebrin, monoclonall polyclonal antibodies serum albumin

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you are excellent Mohamed Taha 17 Transgenic animal General strategies Embryonic Stem Cells Nuclear Transfer DNA Vaccination ex vivo Transgenesis Totipotentcy

Embryonic Stem Cell Lines:

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 18 Embryonic Stem Cell Lines Isolate inner cell mass (destroys embryo) Heart muscle Kidney Liver “Special sauce” (largely unknown) Day 5-6 Blastocyst Inner cells (forms fetus) Outer cells (forms placenta) Heart repaired Culture cells

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you are excellent Mohamed Taha 19

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you are excellent Mohamed Taha 20

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you are excellent Mohamed Taha 21 SCNT

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you are excellent Mohamed Taha 22 Nuclear Transfer   Lamb 6LL3 (‘Dolly’)   Donor: (adult) mammary gland cell - Finn Dorset ewe Recipient: enucleated oocyte - Scottish Blackface ewe

DNA vaccine:

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 23 DNA vaccine

EX-Vivo Trans genesis:

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 24 EX-Vivo Trans genesis

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you are excellent Mohamed Taha 25 Transgenics

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you are excellent Mohamed Taha 26 1981: First transgenic mouse Insertion of hGH into a mouse (Singleton, 1999) Production of monoclonal antibodies & anti-inflammatory agents Transgenics

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you are excellent Mohamed Taha 27 CAST, 2003 has been the most common method

A human gene responsible for producing a desired protein Is isolated in a laboratory:

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 28 2. An animal is given hormonal treatment to produce a large number . Of embryos, and the embryos are collected from the oviduct. 3. The human gene is inserted into the fertilized egg via microinjection 4. The transgenic embryo is placed in a surrogate host which gives Birth to the transgenic animal 5. The offspring is tested for the new gene A human gene responsible for producing a desired protein Is isolated in a laboratory

transgenic:

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 29 transgenic gene transfer is the production of transgenic dairy farm

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you are excellent Mohamed Taha 30 PEW Initiative, 2005 FDA, 2005 Transgenics Mastitis Disease Resistance Annie, born March 3, 2000, is a clone of a pure-bred Jersey calf genes for Staphylococcus aurous bacteria producing lysostaphin , a protein that kills Staphylococcus aurous bacteria Mastitis control

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you are excellent Mohamed Taha 31 Lysozyme is a protein found in the tears gene for an antibacterial enzyme found in human breast milk , Lysozyme inhibits the growth of bacteria by destroying the bacterial cell wall Treatment infant diarrhea produce human lysozyme in their milk produce human lysozyme in their milk Transgenic goat

Transgenic goat:

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 32 Transgenic goat milk contains a protein that could be extracted to make a drug for coronary bypass patients. now in human clinical trials . Millie is a Her The protein,, is called anti-thrombin III goat. transgenic

Steps :

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 33 Steps the gene that produces AT III is sequenced, . build a synthetic gene and make many copies and

then:

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 34 then The synthetic gene is then attached to the gene for casein , which acts as a promoter gene . This ensemble is then injected into a . newly fertilized egg

then:

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 35 then . During the first few critical cell divisions, the gene may become attached to the goat's DNA.

then:

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 36 then If successful, the new gene is now a transgenic which will become incorporated into all cells during subsequent divisions

then:

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 37 then The embryo is then transferred to a surrogate mother

Off spring:

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 38 Off spring

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you are excellent Mohamed Taha 39 Cloning through the ages: 1952: Cloning via nuclear transfer (frog ) 1989-1990: First mammals cloned 1995: First cloning via cultured mammalian cells 1997: First cloning via adult cells – DOLLY

history:

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 40 history First cloning via transgenic adult cells – POLLY 1998 – 2000: Cloning of cattle, pigs, mice, goats and monkeys using adult cells 2001: First reported cloned human embryo 2002: First cloned pet

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you are excellent Mohamed Taha 41 How many genes are there E. coli 4.6 Mb 4,288 genes S. cerevisiae 13.5 Mb 6,034 genes D. melanogaster 165 Mb 12,000 genes C. elegans 97 Mb 19,099 genes H. Sapiens 3,300 Mb 40,000 genes Phenotypes

Which of which :

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 42 Which of which Me can be genetically modified No N o No

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you are excellent Mohamed Taha 43 Transgenic

Ethics :

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 44 Ethics Generally scientist must be the most honest persons They know This is a blessing of Allah

In human :

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 45 In human Research on human embryo Is illegal Some done it behind

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you are excellent Mohamed Taha 46 transgenic mamals non mamals fish birds model animal for disease therabutic producing animal

I mean :

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 47 I mean Animal model for disease Bioreactor for producing Therapeutic in milk of Goat rabbit Cow

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you are excellent Mohamed Taha 48 Transgenic animals are costly: 20,000-30,000 for one animal, and low chances of success. If successful, one animal can produce in its life time 200,000-300,000 million worth of drugs. A herd of 600 transgenic cows could supply the worldwide demand of human serum albumin (used in the treatment of burns and traumatic injuries)

Mention what is in your list?:

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 49 Mention what is in your list? Transgenic Transgenic mouse Gene expression regulation Structure function Cause and effect In path physiological process

Mention what are in your list:

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 50 Mention what are in your list Transgenic mouse Transgenic rat Transgenic rabbit Transgenic goat Transgenic chicken Transgenic cow Transgenic chicken Transgenic quail

Transgenic rabbit:

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 51 Transgenic rabbit used as model for cardiovascular diseases Used as a model for AIDS Used as model for cancer model

Transgenic rabbit:

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 52 Transgenic rabbit The recombinant protein can be produced low cost Wide scale

What rabbit milk ?:

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 53 What rabbit milk ? What is can be in rabbit milk One of the most attractive protein Is alfa glycosidase

:

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 54 both Rabbit both bioreactor bioreactor model lab animal

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you are excellent Mohamed Taha 55 Transgenic rat when multiple preferred analysis be performed on single sample blood chronic studies long term monitoring

Transgenic chicken:

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 56 Transgenic chicken to understand normal and abnormal embryo development limb deformities spinal bifida avian stem cells in embryos Is the coming

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you are excellent Mohamed Taha 57

Egg:

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 58 Egg A typical egg white contains 3.5-4.0 grams of protein

Egg:

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 59 Egg recombinant protein could yield up to a gram or more of the protein in the naturally sterile egg

Protein of therapeutic significance:

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 60 Protein of therapeutic significance interferon beta-1a, in the whites of eggs laid by transgenic hens using the employs Lent Vector. Interferon-

lent virus:

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 61 lent virus

Lentivirus:

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 62 Lentivirus

lentivirus:

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 63 lentivirus lent viral vectors have the advantage of infecting both dividing and non-dividing cells. However, they retain stable

lentivirus:

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 64 lentivirus

lentivirus:

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 65 lentivirus Lentivirus can be pseudo typed with ease to infect certain tissues and cell lines with greater efficiency. Made to accommodate expression

lentivirus:

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 66 lentivirus these viral vectors do not elicit immune responses in vivo can be concentrated to titers of 10 . 109 Cfu/ ml

difficulty:

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 67 difficulty embryos contain about 50,000 cells before the egg is laid inserting DNA into just one cell . gene transfer in other mammals involves

advantages:

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 68 advantages chicken's generation time is around 6 months shorter than the generation time of a large mammal , such as a goat, which requires 18 months

Advantage of egg white :

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 69 Advantage of egg white eggs a hen lays annually 330 eggs contains 6.5 grams of various proteins advantage of producing pharmaceuticals in eggs is that egg Is simpler Than milk milk Egg

Egg white advantages:

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 70 Egg white advantages methods for easily extracting various proteins from eggs.

transgenic:

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 71 transgenic Other important fields neurobiology model cardiovascular biology

transgenic:

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 72 transgenic How can perform How can perform

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you are excellent Mohamed Taha 73 transgenic mouse

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you are excellent Mohamed Taha 74 The MOUSE Life span: approx. 2.5 years Gestation : 21 days Litter size: 8 to 12 Generation time: three months Several inbred and outbreed strains Genomic database Most advance genetic technologies Cost per mouse 5 E p Housing cost Over 90% identical to human genome Large enough for physiological studies

Mouse :

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 75 Mouse

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you are excellent Mohamed Taha 76 Early mouse development

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you are excellent Mohamed Taha 77 NON-TRANSGENIC TRANSGENIC No modifications to the genome. Modifications to the genome. Germ line mutations Somatic cell mutations MAMMALIAN EMBRYO MANIPULATIONS

Special facilities:

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 78 Special facilities Specialized glassware Pulled, Holding and Transfer pipettes are used for manipulating and moving embryos around. All are handmade from stock glass tubing Injection pipettes are machine pulled. Microscopes - Surgical, Dissecting, & Inverted Micromanipulators – Convert gross hand movements into micro-movements Microsurgical instruments – Used for harvest and re-implantation of embryos Incubator – Used when culturing embryos is required

Labeled cages:

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 79 Labeled cages

micro injector:

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 80 micro injector

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you are excellent Mohamed Taha 81 Microinjection Set-Up Micromanipulator Inverted Microscope Hamilton Syringe for operating Holding Pipet Foot Pedal for operating Microinjection Pipet Nitrogen Holding Pipet Injection Pipet Nitrogen Powered Microinjection Apparatus

Pipets for Pronuclear Microinjection:

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 82 Pipets for Pronuclear Microinjection Internal Diameter 120 m – 180 m Internal Diameter 55 m – 70 m Internal Diameter 120 m – 180 m Pulled Holding Injection Transfer Internal Diameter 1 m – 3 m Next

Surgical instrument:

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 83 Surgical instrument

Surgical instrument:

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 84 Surgical instrument

surgical:

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 85 surgical

weigh:

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 86 weigh

Cabinet :

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 87 Cabinet

cabinet:

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 88 cabinet

equipment:

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 89 equipment

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you are excellent Mohamed Taha 90 Experimental Outline Procedures begin 3 days before any embryos are harvested or injected Next

Surgical :

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 91 Surgical

handling:

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 92 handling

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you are excellent Mohamed Taha 93 Pregnant mare ’ s serum (PMSG) is administered intraperitoneally (I.P.) to donor females PMSG mimics follicle stimulating hormone and induces the maturation of oocytes in the ovary Superovulation Part I Next Day -3

super ovulation:

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 94 super ovulation Super ovulate donor females to maximize embryo yield

Day -1:

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 95 Day -1 Human Chrionic Gonadotropin (HCG) is administered I.P. to donor females HGC mimics Latinizing hormone and stimulates the ovulation of the mature oocytes from the ovary Superovulation Part II Next

Donor females are then placed with donor males:

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 96 Set-up mating of donor male and female mice and recipient females with vasectomized males Donor females are then placed with donor males

harvest:

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 97 harvest Harvest embryos from donor females

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you are excellent Mohamed Taha 98 Embryo Harvest An abdominal incision is made and the ovaries, oviducts and uteri are excised Next

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you are excellent Mohamed Taha 99 Ovary Fat Pad Oviduct Uterus Isolating the Oviduct The structures of the excised portion of the reproductive tract are identified and the mesentery torn away to facilitate isolation of the oviduct Mesentery Next

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you are excellent Mohamed Taha 100 Isolating the Oviduct The oviduct, along with a small portion of the uterus is isolated and removed Next

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you are excellent Mohamed Taha 101 Fat pad Oviduct Freeing Embryos from Oviduct Cumulus Mass Cumulus Mass The cumulus mass is visualized through the wall of the oviduct and a needle is used to tear it open and free the embryos Next

Wash and Grade Embryos:

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 102 Media with hyaluronidase Wash and Grade Embryos The cumulus mass is placed in a large drop of medium with hyalurdonidanse. After the cumulus cells have fallen away, the embryos are transferred through three small rinse drops and graded for quality. Only embryos suitable for injection advance to the final drop. Rinse Drops Embryos for injection Next

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you are excellent Mohamed Taha 103 Grading Embryos Healthy, fertilized embryos must be separated from degenerate and unfertile embryos for injection Next

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you are excellent Mohamed Taha 104 Zona Pellucida Embryo Pronuclear Polar Bodies Basic Embryo Anatomy Next

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you are excellent Mohamed Taha 105 Examples of Embryos Good Unfertilized Cleaved Degenerate Next

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you are excellent Mohamed Taha 106 Photograph showing examples of good and degenerate embryos Next

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you are excellent Mohamed Taha 107 Embryos in Injection Dish Acrylic Frame Glass Cover Slip Embryo injections are performed on a special microscope slide composed of an acrylic frame with a glass cover slip attached. Embryos are placed in the center of a drop of medium that is covered with oil to prevent movement and dehydration of the drop. Next

grading:

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 108 grading Characteristics of a good embryo: 2 visible pronuclear Embryo should fill the zone pellucida Well defined embryo within the zona pellucida

injection:

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 109 injection Inject embryos with DNA

implantation:

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 110 implantation Surgically re-implant injected embryos into pseudo pregnant recipients

Pronuclear Microinjection:

you are excellent Mohamed Taha 111 Pronuclear Microinjection Using gentle suction, the embryos are held in place by the holding pipet so that the pronucleus can be injected Holding Pipet Next

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you are excellent Mohamed Taha 112 Photos of Pronuclear Microinjection

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you are excellent Mohamed Taha 113 Embryo Transfer After all embryos have been injected they are inspected and the number of embryos that still appear healthy are separated for injection. Embryos which did not survive the injection process are discarded Using a remote mouth pipe ting device, embryos are loaded into a transfer pipette for re-implantation into pseudopregnant recipients 20-30 embryos will be transferred into one oviduct of each recipient

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you are excellent Mohamed Taha 114 Loading the Transfer Pipet Mineral Oil Air Embryos in media Alternate Transfer Pipet Design The transfer pipette is filled with medium then loaded with the embryos to be re-implanted in oviduct of the recipient female

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you are excellent Mohamed Taha 115 An incision is made in the flank of an anesthetized mouse The ovary and oviduct are then gently pulled through the incision. A tear is made in the bursa and the infundibulum exposed. The tip of the loaded transfer pipette is placed inside the infundibulum and the embryos gently blown into the oviduct The tract is returned to the abdomen and the incision site is closed. Oviduct Transfer

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