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INTRODUCTION In agricultural production the synthetic pesticides are used which has got sometimes carcinogenic, teratogenic and residual toxic effects. The excessive use of it also causes serious health hazards to live stocks, human life, wild life, fishes, birds and animals. So there is an urgent need for alternative harmless pesticides. The tropical plants are natural rich source of phytochemicals having antimicrobial and biological properties. Raven have stated that “Green plants are natural biochemical factories.” 2

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When they will be taken along with the food grains it may causes the diseases like Cancer, Heart & Brain diseases, Liver troubles. Intestinal and Kidney Problems. It is a well known fact that higher plant and their product provide less phytotoxic ,more systematic, easily biodegradable, non pollutive and host metabolism stimulatory pesticides. In US and Australia public is paying more for the organic food labels. 3

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Botanicals are naturally occurring insecticides and compounds derived from plants. They are processed into various forms which include, •       Preparation of crude plant material •       Plant extract or resins & •       Pure chemicals isolated from plants. Generally they are used in form of dust , sprays, paste, suspension or preparations. Sometimes they are dispensed in the form of aerosol or liquefied gas propellants. For the application of pesticides the equipment used are small hand sprayers, paint brushes for use in home to large power sprayers for treating livestock's and field crops. For vast area dispersal airplanes and helicopters are also used. 4

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Advantages 1. Rapid degradation : Less persistence in environment and reduced risk to non target organism. May be applied shortly before harvest without leaving excessive residue. 2. Rapid action : Act very quickly to stop feeding by pest insects. They may not cause death for hrs. or days, but they often cause immediate paralysis or cessation of feeding. 3. Low mammalian toxicity : Most botanicals have low to moderate mammalian toxicity. 4. Selectivity: In the field, their rapid degradation and action as stomach poisons make them more selective in some instances for plant- feeding pest insects and less harmful to beneficial insects. 5. Low toxicity to plants : Most botanical are not phytotoxic (toxic to plants). Insecticidal soaps and nicotine sulphate , may be phytotoxic to some ornamentals. 6. Botanical pesticides are absolutely environment friendly . 7. Safe to other botanicals including to the person who applies them. 5

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8 . Systematic and do not attack host organism. 9 . Do not cause pesticides resistance as they comprise of a group of complex chemical compound. 10. Easily bio degradable and do not posses any toxic effect. 11. Inexpensive and produce from natural renewable sources. 12. Do not exhibit any dosage problems as their drug tolerance limit is very high 13. May also be tried by mixing with one or more botanicals or the synthetic organic compound ( synergistic effect ) and such combination may be more effective. 6

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Disadvantages 1. Rapid degradation : This characteristic, although desirable in some respects, creates a need for more precise timing or more frequent applications. 2. Toxicity : All toxins used in pest control pose some hazard to the user and to the environment. 3 Cost and availability : Botanicals tend to be more expensive than synthetics and some are not as widely available. 4. Lack of test data : Data on effectiveness of long term ( chronic ) toxicity are unavailable for some botanicals and tolerances for some have not been established . 7


CLASSIFICATION The plant derived compounds with pesticidal potential are: Pesticides Insecticides Fungicides Herbicides Nematicides and Molluscicides Rodenticides Ascaricides - controls the ticks & mites. Algicides - controls the Algae & other equatic veretation Antiseptics - controls micro - organisms. Arbericides - Defoliate & destroy trees & shrubs. Miticides Plant Incorporated protectants (PIPs) The miscellaneous pesticides are antimicrobial, Attractants, Bactericide, Disinfectant etc. 8


PESTICIDES Pesticide is a general term for substances that kills pests. Pest can be weeds, insects, rodents, diseases, etc. Pesticides can also be classified according to the type of action that result in destruction of pest. Three broad categories are, (1) Stomach poison kill by being taken into stomach (2) Systemic poison absorbed in the blood & leads to death of the pest due to toxic action (3) Contact insecticides kill by direct or indirect contact with the insect or sometimes it penetrate inside the body & causes oxidation & suffocate the insect. 9

Essential of good pesticides:

Essential of good pesticides ( a) It should have a high margin of safety for plants & animal causing very little or no damage to the foliage or live stocks respectively. (b) It should be safer . (c) It should be easier to handle & easy for application . (d) It should not show toxicity in case of warm blooded animals. (e) It should not have flammable or explosive character. (f) It should have safety & palatability of the food products exposed to insecticides & should not show the residual effects of pesticides. 10

Plants used for pest control experimentally and traditionally in different parts of world::

Plants used for pest control experimentally and traditionally in different parts of world: Name of the drug and B. S. Family Allium sativum (Garlic) Liliaceae Anacardium occidentalis Anacardiaceae Annona cuneata Annonaceae Azadirachta indica ( Neem ) Meliaceae Capsicum frutescens ( chilli ) Solanaceae Cassia spp. Leguminosae Eucalyptus spp. Myrtaceae Euphorbia tirucalli (milk bush) Euphorbiaceae Melia azedarach (Persian lilac) Meliaceae Nicotiana spp. (tobacco) Solanaceae Ocimum spp. (Basil) Labiatae Pyrethrum Compositae Rhuspyroides Anacardiaceae Solanum nigrum ( blackpepper ) Solanaceae Tagetes spp. (Marigold) Asteraceae 11

Neem (Azadirachta indica meliaceae):

Neem ( Azadirachta indica meliaceae) A holy tree in india . A global distribution throughout the tropics. It is used for any purposses such as shade tree. Poles for construction,medicine tooth stics & as a source of insecticide. The biodiversity of neem products can control more than 30 insect species . 12

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Neem is used in a variety of forms such a neem leaves. Neem oil,neem cake,neem kernals suspension. 13

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For storage protection neem is usually used as powder from crushed seeds which is mixed with the grain at various concentrations. Neem product gives a bitter smell and teste which can reduce its attractiveness as a protectant in food grain in particular in areas where there is shortage of water for washing the treated product. 14

Basil species (ocimum sanctum family labiatae, holy basil):

Basil species ( ocimum sanctum family labiatae, holy basil ) It is reported by irvine(1955 ) for its potential as a pesticide. Leaves and seeds are rich in essential oils which are repellent,toxic, or growth inhibitory to many insects. In held and laboratory experiments with seed exracts against bugs in turnip. The eugenol content in the essential oil has got strong repellent efect on mosquitos. 15

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Cocaine, a Naturalinsecticide (erythroxyton coca, erythroxylaceae):

Cocaine, a Naturalinsecticide ( erythroxyton coca , erythroxylaceae ) Cocaine found in the leaves of coca plants has been found to have insecticidal effects. Elicit a blocking of a key neurotransmitter and hormone that regulates movement , behaviour and metabolism in insects. 17

Milk Bush and other Euphorbiaceae:

Milk Bush and other Euphorbiaceae The milk bush Euphorbia tirucalli (Euphorbiaceae ): Stem , Branches and buds have insectidal and repellant properties against aphids, grasshoppers and mosquitos. The plants is also use as a fish poison. Leaves,seeds and roots are soaked in water and the solution is sprayed to protect vegetables from caterpillars and seedlings from termites. Because the latex is harmful to the eyes and causes irritation of the skin the plant material must be handled carefully when preparing the crude extracts. 18


INSECTICIDE Insecticides are the substance used to kill insects. Insecticide is a type of pesticide. Insecticides have been used for centuries to fight unwanted pests. There are several natural (plant) insecticides that have been widely used, although compared with modern synthetics the plant substances are relatively weak. One benefit of a plant insecticide is that many of them are biodegradable. More than 1500 species of plants have been reported to have insecticidal value, and many more exist, but two products, rotenone and pyrethrin , have been economically important. 19


Pyrethrin Pyrethrin is a compound from Pyrethrum consists of dried flower heads of Chrysanthemum cinerarifolium comes from a perennial daisy. The biologically active chemicals are esters . Which occur in the flower heads . Pyrethrin 1, Jasmolin 1,Cinerin1 are ester of Chrysanthemic acid . Pyrethrin 2,Jasmolin2,Cinerin2 are esters of Pyrethrin acid. It is contact poison . Which paralyzes the insects with in 90 seconds. Emulsion or dust Acute toxicity in mammals is relatively low, because the pyrethrin esters are converted into nontoxic compounds. 20

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It mixed with synergists such as piperonyl butoxide or piperonyl cyclonene , which increase toxicity and produce longer residual action. Pyrethrins are unstable in sunlight so go for synthetic pyrethroids which has activity 1000 times to that of pyrethrine. 21


Tobacco Nicotine Prepare from west materials of tobacco industry, volatile liquid alkaloid consists of pyridine and pyrrolidine rings. Pure Nicotine highly toxic to warm blooded animals. The insecticide usually is marketed as a 40% liquid concentrate of nicotine sulfate . Effective against aphids, whiteflies, leaf hoppers and thrips. 22

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Nicotine is more effective when applied during warm weather. It degrades quickly so used on food plants nearing harvest. Tobacco dust along with black pipper and liquid dish washing detergent mixed in water used as natural pesticide. 23

Derris Root :

Derris Root Rotenone Rotenone (compound from the Roots and Rhizomes of Derris elliptica Roxb, D.malaccensis pran, Lonchocarpus utilis , Lonchocarpus nicou and L. urucu , Leguminosae ). It is a isoflavanoid derivative which strongly inhibits mitochondrial respiration . It acts as both a contact and stomach poison to insects. This general garden insecticide is harmless highly toxic to fish and many insects, moderately toxic to mammals and leaves no harmful residue on vegetable crops. It is slow acting and, in the presence of sun and air, its effectiveness is lost within a week after application. Wear a mask during application because rotenone can irritate the respirator tract. 24

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Rotenone dusts and sprays have been used for years to control aphids ,certain beetles and caterpillars on plants as well as fleas and lice on animals. It is a potentially lethal toxin for aphids, cockroaches ,houseflies, corn bores,Mexican bean beetles and mosquitoes. 25


BIORATIONAL INSECTICIDES Biorational has come to mean any substance of natural origin. That has detrimental lethal effect on specific target pest. E.g. insects,weeds,plant diseases , biopesticides has three categories. Microbial pesticides Biochemical's - natural substances that control pests by non-toxic mechanisms. An example is insect pheromones. Plant-Incorporated Protectants-PIP means pesticidal substance that is intended to be produced and used in a living plant Very low orders of toxicity to non-target species, pest targets are specific . Generally, low use rates, rapid decomposition in the environment. 26

VOGEL TEPHROSIA ( Fish bean Plant) :

VOGEL TEPHROSIA ( Fish bean Plant) The legume Vogel tephrosia ( Leguminosae ). T. vogelii , is an shrub by plant indigenous to Africa but distributed to many other parts in the tropics where it is used as shelter, cover crop, fish poison and as a pesticide. Farmers in Malawi use Tephrosia as a dip to protect cattle from ticks and as a fish poison. Similar practices are reported from Zambia. Powder of Tephrosia leaves can also be used to protect stored products . In Congo powder mixed with groundnuts at a ratio of 1:40 gave a 98.8% mortality of the Groundnut Borer, Caryedon serratus , after 13 days. 27


RODENTICIDE Strychnine The occurrence of strychnine in Strychons species ( Loganiaceae )has already been discussed. This alkaloid has been used traditionaly for the extermination of moles , but its toxicity to other animals and its painful poisonous action do not make it a poison of choice. 28

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Red squill Red squill and white squill are both varieties of Urginea mortima ( Liliaceae ). It may be distinguished in either the whole or powdered state by the reddish brown outer scales and white to deep purple inner ones. In addition of other cardio active glaycosides the bulb of red squill also contain the glucosides scilliroside and scillirubroside . Strain selected for high scilliroside content have been developed from plants. Unlike other mammals, rodents do not regurgitate the squill bulb,and death follows convulsions and respiratory failure. 29

Sabadilla (Seeds of Schoenocaulon officinale, Liliaceae): :

Sabadilla (Seeds of Schoenocaulon officinale , Liliaceae ): It is also known as Cevadilla.It contains about 2-4% of mixed alkaloids known as veratrine.The chief alkaloids are Sabadine or cevadine and veratridine which are closely related to esters alkaloids of Veratrum . Sabadilla is obtained from the seeds of a lily-like plant and acts as both a contact and stomach poison for insects. It is not particularly toxic to mammals, but does cause irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract. A mask should be worn when working with this insecticide. This material deteriorates when rapidly exposed to light and can be used safely on food crops shortly before harvest. Sabadilla generally is used as a 5 to 20% dust or as a spray. Ryanodine ( Ryania speciosa , Flacourtriaceae ) It is a complex ester involving 1 - pyrrole -carboxylic acid. An alkaloid from tropical shrub , Ryania speciosa has been used as commercial insecticide against European corn borer. 30

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31 Physostigmine ( Physostigma venenosum , Leguminosae ) It is an indole alkaloid, also called as eserine . An alkaloid from Physostigma venenosum was the compound upon which carbamate insecticides were designed . Camphene (Eucalyptus globules and other species of Eucalyptus, Myrtaceae & Cinnamomum camphora , Lauraceae ) It is a bicyclic monoterpenoid.A terpenoid was a very successful herbicide in its polyhalogenated form.

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Microbial insecticides Microbial insecticides are products containing micro organisms (or their byproducts) which result in insect diseases like botanical insecticides, they are of natural origin and have similar advantages and disadvantages. However, unlike botanicals microbial have no effect on mammals. In fact , any given microbial will kill only every limited group of insects. Types of microbial insecticides: Bacillus thuringiensis : This organism is incorporated into several products , most of which are used to control caterpillar pests. Bacillus popilliae or B. lentimorbus : They are used to control the larval stage of Japanese beetle. Nosema locustae: This microscopic protozoan is used in several products to control grasshoppers . 32

Insect repellant:

Insect repellant There are over 150 registered plant insect repellents but the most common ones are oils of cedar wood, lemongrass, peppermint, canola, rosemary, eucalyptus and Soya bean. They are used as insect repellent by people who try to limit their exposure to DEET (Diethyl toluamide ). The oils are considered to be safe in low percentages. Their effectiveness however is short lived and they have to be frequently reapplied. Insect repellents containing more than 10% essential oils can cause skin irritation. Brand names such as Avon's Skin-So-Soft and Bite Blockers use natural oils as the active ingredient in their insect repellents. 33

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Citronella: ( Cymbopogon nardus , Graminae) It is a acyclic monoterpenoid . Citronella is the active ingredient most commonly found in "natural" or "herbal" insect repellents. Citronella oil has a lemony scent and was originally extracted from the grass plant Cymbopogon nardus . Studies show that citronella can be an effective repellent, but it provides shorter complete protection time than most DEET-based products. Frequent reapplication of the repellent can partially compensate for this. In recent years plants such as Citrosa have been promoted as having insect repellent properties. These plants many of the same chemicals found in oil of citronella. However studies show that these plants do not repel insects indoors. There are also several natural insecticides like citronella, oils of cedar wood, lemongrass, peppermint, eucalyptus, soya bean oil, garlic and many more. For more info on insects repellents. 34

Limonene or d-Limonene: (Citrus limonis, Rutaceae) :

Limonene or d-Limonene: (Citrus limonis, Rutaceae) It is a terpenoidal compound. Limonene belongs to a group often called florals or scented plant chemicals. Extracted from citrus peel, it is effective against all external pests of pets, including fleas, lice, mites, and ticks, and is virtually nontoxic to warm-blooded animals. Several insecticidal substances occur in citrus oil, but the most important is limonene, which constitutes about 98% of the orange peel oil by weight. Two other recently introduced floral products are eugenol (Oil of Cloves) and cinnamaldehyde (derived from Ceylon and Chinese cinnamon oils). They are used on ornamentals and many crops to control various insects. 35

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Thank you…! 36

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