CoGNITIVE THEORIES oF ELL AND BILINGUAL INSTRUCTION] : CoGNITIVE THEORIES oF ELL AND BILINGUAL INSTRUCTION] COGNTIVE THEORIESSUP (Separate underlying proficiency) : COGNTIVE THEORIESSUP (Separate underlying proficiency) Theory that language are stored separately. COMMON UNDERLYING PROFICIENCY (CUP) CUmmins : COMMON UNDERLYING PROFICIENCY (CUP) CUmmins Represented by an ICEBERG.
CUP states that language are stored in one area and that there is one global language proficiency area the bottom part of the iceberg.
The surface aspects of different languages are different (the top of the iceberg) Cognitive Theories (CUP) : Cognitive Theories (CUP) CUP therefore represents a persons’ overall language skills combined from all languages.
There are assessments that attempt to measure CUP to show the range of language skills.
For example If a student cannot compare in English can they compare in their first language.
The BVAT or Bilingual Verbal Achievement Test is one example of an assessment that attempts to measure CUP. DEVELOPMENTAL INTEDEPENDENCE HYPTHESIS : DEVELOPMENTAL INTEDEPENDENCE HYPTHESIS Proficiency attained in one language can be transferred to subsequent languages (i.e. Reading)
Provides strong rationale for Bilingual Education because it promotes learning language skills and academic concepts in first or dominant language then transferring them to the second language.
This results in more optimum learning than trying to learning academic language skills and concepts only in the second language. Cognitive Theories -Threshold Theory : Cognitive Theories -Threshold Theory This theory explores the relationship between cognitive advantages and bilingualism.
The theory contends that high levels of proficiency in both language (TOP floor) creates the most cognitive advantages for learners.
The theory attempts to explain why some students do not reap the benefits of bilingualism because one or more of the languages is not fully developed.
It relates to the Developmental Interdependence Hypothesis because it supports the efforts to develops skills in the first or dominant language, which will transfer more readily into the 2nd language and create “high level balanced bilinguals”
The Threshold theory has been criticized because it does not show the level needed to received positive effects of bilingualism. Cognitive TheoriesWhat do they mean in ELL programs without Bilingual Education : Cognitive TheoriesWhat do they mean in ELL programs without Bilingual Education Support students first language development
allow students to discuss concepts in L1,
first language story time,
promoting first language use in the home
Use native speaker to explain/teach concepts in school
First language clubs/lunches etc. Cognitive TheoriesWhat do they mean in EFL (English as a Foreign Language Contexts) : Cognitive TheoriesWhat do they mean in EFL (English as a Foreign Language Contexts) Support most countries efforts to teach additional languages.
Bilingual programs that teach attempt to teach academic content in the 2nd language. Cognitive TheoriesBICS and CALP (Cummins) : Cognitive TheoriesBICS and CALP (Cummins) BIC (Basic Interpersonal Skills (BICS)=Social Language
CALP (Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency) (Cummins)
The theory accounts for why students cannot handle grade level academic language demands despite have oral, social fluency.
ELLs were overrepresented in SPED programs in late 70’s because they appeared fluent, yet could not cope with grade level content and language. Cognitive TheoriesBICS and CALP (Cummins) : Cognitive TheoriesBICS and CALP (Cummins) Research into BICS/CALP (Cummins, 1979) shows it takes 1-3 years to developed BICS (social language) and 5-7 years to develop CALP (grade level academic language)
BICS/CALP is the most powerful theory in ELL/Bilingual Education.
Academic language or CALP can be transferred from one language to another (CUP)
Long term programming to develop academic language is a focus. ELLs are given time to developed CALP. Cognitive TheoriesBICS and CALP (Cummins) : Cognitive TheoriesBICS and CALP (Cummins) One of the main criticisms of BICS/CALP is that is very static and compartmentalizes language into 2 very broad categories.
Another criticism is that does give any definition what constitutes CALP or academic language. Cognitive TheoriesBICS and CALP (Cummins) : Cognitive TheoriesBICS and CALP (Cummins) Cognitive TheoriesCognitive/Context Quadrants : Cognitive TheoriesCognitive/Context Quadrants Analyzes academic language in terms of cognitive demand and contextual support.
Intended to help educators plan and adapt tasks. Cummin’s Quadrants : Cummin’s Quadrants Cognitive TheoriesCognitive/Context Quadrants : Cognitive TheoriesCognitive/Context Quadrants According to the theory cognitive tasks are slowly increased in demand while contextual support is gradually reduced.
According to Cummins (2000) instruction in a second language in a school should move from A to B to D. Rote tasks such as memorization are the only things in school that are Quadrant C (Cognitively undemanding Contextually reduced) Cognitive TheoriesCognitive/Context Quadrants : Cognitive TheoriesCognitive/Context Quadrants Reading a simple passage about cells with visuals Reading a more complex passage about cells with visuals Reading a complex passage about cells without visual support Cognitive TheoriesCognitive/Context Quadrants : Cognitive TheoriesCognitive/Context Quadrants CRITICISMS:
Cognitive demand and needed contextual supports vary from students to student
There is a lot of overlap between the two dimensions. Academic Language theoriesSINCE NCLB in 2001 : Academic Language theoriesSINCE NCLB in 2001 The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 created Title III which
Title III requires states to create English Language Proficiency (ELP) standards that address academic language and summative assessment to measure student performance against these ELP standards.
This acted coupled with the belief that academic language proficiency is the main vehicle to boast achievement of ELLs has created several new academic language theories. WIDA THEORY OF ACADEMIC LANGUAGE : WIDA THEORY OF ACADEMIC LANGUAGE Vermont is one of 25 states that belong to the WIDA Consortium.
The WIDA Consortium share ELP Standards and the ACCESS for ELLs Assessment
The TESOL Standards are based on the WIDA Standards.
The WIDA/TESOL Standards are based on a model of academic language that attempts to address the language demands of the 4 main subject areas (MATH, SCI, LA, SS) at different grade levels, at different proficiency levels (1-6), and in different language domains (speaking, reading , writing, ,listening) WIDA THEORY OF ACADEMIC LANGUAGE : WIDA THEORY OF ACADEMIC LANGUAGE Shows how WIDA ELP Levels Develop through the levels WIDA THEORY OF ACADEMIC LANGUAGE : WIDA THEORY OF ACADEMIC LANGUAGE WIDA Indicators are based on using different and increasingly complex academic language functions (Compare, Describe, Analyze, Interpret) using grade level content topics with contextual support. WIDA THEORY OF ACADEMIC LANGUAGE : WIDA THEORY OF ACADEMIC LANGUAGE EXAMPLE:
Level 2 Sci Reading Grades 6-8
Respond to yes/no, choice, or WH- questions regarding natural disasters based on graphic support and pictures (e.g., Does Illinois have hurricanes?)
Level 4 Sci Reading Grades 6-8
Compare types of natural disasters using multiple written sources, including Web sites and graphic support CONCLUSIONS : CONCLUSIONS There is no clear consensus what academic language is.
For example if you are in grammar you are learning about Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) and that not represented currently in U.S. ELP Standards and Assessments.
There is consensus that academic language is necessary for academic success.
There is consensus that academic language is best learned in the dominant language and then transferred to subsequent languages (The Rationale for Bilingual Education)