Molecules that Changed the World Video

Views:
 
Category: Entertainment
     
 

Presentation Description

No description available.

Comments

Presentation Transcript

Molecules that Changed the World-Palytoxin-Mike Newton : 

Molecules that Changed the World-Palytoxin-Mike Newton

Palytoxin : 

Palytoxin Palythoa – species of soft coral Limu make o hana - ‘Seaweed of death from Hana’ http://wildshores.blogspot.com/2008/10/palytoxin-and-zoanthids-of-death.html

Palytoxin : 

Palytoxin First isolated by Attaway in 1968 from P.cariborum and P.mammiliosa. Has now also been isolated from select marine animals

Palytoxin : 

Palytoxin Extremely complex in structure IUPAC name is listed as ‘unable to assign’ Most toxic non-polypeptide, non-protein toxin known to man Lethal dose for humans is >5 µg!

Structure : 

Structure C129H223N3O54 71 asymmetric centers 64 (R/S) chiral centers 7 (E/Z) C=C bonds 271 stereoisomers possible!

Structure : 

Structure 115 Carbon chain backbone Molecular weight of 2680 g/mol Among the largest natural nonpolymer products to have ever been discovered!

Structure : 

Structure http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/ja/8/88/%E6%A7%8B%E9%80%A0%E5%BC%8F_Palytoxin.PNG

Structure : 

Structure http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/ja/8/88/%E6%A7%8B%E9%80%A0%E5%BC%8F_Palytoxin.PNG

Structure : 

Structure http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/ja/8/88/%E6%A7%8B%E9%80%A0%E5%BC%8F_Palytoxin.PNG

Structure : 

Structure http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/ja/8/88/%E6%A7%8B%E9%80%A0%E5%BC%8F_Palytoxin.PNG

Structure : 

Structure http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/ja/8/88/%E6%A7%8B%E9%80%A0%E5%BC%8F_Palytoxin.PNG

Structure : 

Structure http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/ja/8/88/%E6%A7%8B%E9%80%A0%E5%BC%8F_Palytoxin.PNG

Mechanism of Action : 

Mechanism of Action Sites of activity at Na/K pumps, and perhaps very closely related H/K pumps Ion pumps are used to move ions against chemical gradients

Mechanism of Action : 

Mechanism of Action http://www.pnas.org/content/100/2/386.full

Mechanism of Action : 

Mechanism of Action Ion pumps function with a gated mechanism they ‘swing’ back and forth, opening one way and then the other, but never both ways at the same time Palytoxin binds to the ion pump and alters it’s function to that of an open ion channel

Mechanism of Action : 

Mechanism of Action

Mechanism of Action : 

Mechanism of Action Destroys potassium and sodium ion gradients in the cell Can cause cell lysis In humans, death generally occurs within minutes if antidotal measures are not taken immediately!

Mechanism of Action : 

Mechanism of Action Mainly targets the heart/blood Symptoms: Hemolysis (lysis of RBCs) Chest pains and breathing difficulty Unstable blood pressure

So what? : 

So what? Professor Yoshito Kishi and a research group from the University of Harvard synthesized Palytoxin for the first time in 1994 Considered by many to be the greatest synthetic achievement to date, due to Palytoxin’s extremely complex structure

So what? : 

So what? http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/ja/8/88/%E6%A7%8B%E9%80%A0%E5%BC%8F_Palytoxin.PNG

So what? : 

So what? Palytoxin basically turns an ion pump into an ion channel Understanding of the key differences between an ion pump and an ion channel

So what? : 

So what? Ion channels can have ion flow in both directions simultaneously Ion pumps can only have flow in one direction at a time

Sources : 

Sources Proceedings of the National Academy of the Sciences of the United States of America. http://www.pnas.org/content/100/2/386.full (accessed Dec 5, 2009). Science/AAAS. http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/short/172/3982/495 (accessed Dec 5 2009). Science Daily. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2003/01/030127074230.htm (accessed Dec 5, 2009). Total Synthesis of Palytoxin. http://www.dqi.ufms.br/~lp4/pallyt.pdf (accessed Dec 5, 2009). Wu, C. H. Palytoxin: Membrane Mechanisms of Action. Toxicon. 2009, 54-8, 1183-1189.

The End : 

The End

authorStream Live Help