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Premium member Presentation Transcript Oil and Gas – Black Gold!: Oil and Gas – Black Gold! http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/ce/Oil_well.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Moscow_traffic_congestion.JPG NASA en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Oil_platform.jpg en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Ceratium_hirundinella.jpgTalk outline: Talk outline Part 1: Origin – How do oil and gas form? Practical: Non-Renewable Energy Part 2: Exploration and Production – How do we find oil and gas and how is it produced? Practical: Prospector Game Part 3: Politics – Why are oil and gas important?Origin (1): Chemistry: Origin (1): Chemistry Crude Oil Hydrocarbon en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Octane_molecule_3D_model.png en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Petroleum.JPG Oil and gas are made of a mixture of different hydrocarbons . As the name suggests these are large molecules made up of hydrogen atoms attached to a backbone of carbon .Origin (2): Plankton: Origin (2): Plankton cache.eb.com/eb/image?id=93510 en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Copepod. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Ceratium_hirundinella.jpg Most oil and gas starts life as microscopic plants and animals that live in the ocean. Plant plankton Animal plankton 10,000 of these bugs would fit on a pinhead!Origin (3): Blooms: Origin (3): Blooms serc.carleton.edu/images/microbelife/topics/red_tide_genera.v3.jpg Today, most plankton can be found where deep ocean currents rise to the surface This upwelling water is rich in nutrients and causes the plankton to bloom Blooms of certain plankton called dinoflagellates may give the water a red tinge © Miriam Godfrey Dinoflagellate bloomOrigin (4): On the sea bed: Origin (4): On the sea bed upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/0/04/Plankton.jpg When the plankton dies it rains down on sea bed to form an organic mush Sea bed en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Nerr0328.jpg If there are any animals on the sea bed these will feed on the organic particlesOrigin (5): Black Shale: Origin (5): Black Shale upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/0/04/Plankton.jpg However, if there is little or no oxygen in the water then animals can’t survive and the organic mush accumulates Where sediment contains more than 5% organic matter, it eventually forms a rock known as a Black Shale © Earth Science World Image BankOrigin (6): Cooking: Origin (6): Cooking www.oilandgasgeology.com/oil_gas_window.jpg As Black Shale is buried, it is heated . Kerogen Gas Oil Organic matter is first changed by the increase in temperature into kerogen, which is a solid form of hydrocarbon Around 90°C, it is changed into a liquid state, which we call oil Around 150°C, it is changed into a gas A rock that has produced oil and gas in this way is known as a Source RockOrigin (7): Migration: Origin (7): Migration www.diveco.co.nz/img/gallery/2006/diver_bubbles.jpg Hot oil and gas is less dense than the source rock in which it occurs Oil and gas migrate upwards up through the rock in much the same way that the air bubbles of an underwater diver rise to the surface The rising oil and gas eventually gets trapped in pockets in the rock called reservoirs Rising oilOrigin (8): Ancient Earth: Origin (8): Ancient Earth © Ron Blakey, Arizona Flagstaff During mid-Mesozoic times around 150 million years ago, conditions were just right to build up huge thicknesses of Black Shale source rocks Ancient Earth The world’s main oil deposits all formed in warm shallow seas where plankton bloomed but bottom waters were deoxygenatedOrigin (9): Source of North Sea Oil: Origin (9): Source of North Sea Oil Ancient Earth © Ian and Tonya West The Kimmeridge Clay is a Black Shale with up to 50% organic matter. It is the main source rock for the North Sea Oil & Gas Province Black ShalePractical Exercise 1: Practical Exercise 1 Renewable versus Non-Renewable Energy en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Oil_platform.jpg en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Windpark_Galicia.jpgExploration and Production (1): Oil Traps: Exploration and Production (1): Oil Traps Some rocks are permeable and allow oil and gas to freely pass through them Other rocks are impermeable and block the upward passage of oil and gas Where oil and gas rises up into a dome (or anticline) capped by impermeable rocks it can’t escape. This is one type of an Oil Trap . Impermeable Permeable Dome TrapExploration and Production (2): Reservoir Rocks: Exploration and Production (2): Reservoir Rocks Earth Science World Image Bank Image #h5innl The permeable strata in an oil trap is known as the Reservoir Rock Reservoir rocks have lots of interconnected holes called pores . These absorb the oil and gas like a sponge This is a highly magnified picture of a sandy reservoir rock (water-filled pores are shown in blue) As oil migrates it fills up the pores (oil-filled pores shown in black)Exploration and Production (3): Seismic Surveys: Exploration and Production (3): Seismic Surveys Earth Science World Image Bank Image #h5inpj Earth Science World Image Bank Image #h5inor Seismic surveys are used to locate likely rock structures underground in which oil and gas might be found Shock waves are fired into the ground. These bounce off layers of rock and reveal any structural domes that might contain oil Drill here!Exploration and Production (4): Drilling the well: Exploration and Production (4): Drilling the well Once an oil or gas prospect has been identified, a hole is drilled to assess the potential The cost of drilling is very great. On an offshore rig, it may cost $10,000 for each metre drilled. A company incurs vast losses for every “dry hole” drilled en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Oil_platform.jpgExploration and Production (5): Enhanced Recovery: Exploration and Production (5): Enhanced Recovery © California Department of Conservation Although oil and gas are less dense than water and naturally rise up a well to the surface, in reality only 40-50% of the total will do so. To enhance recovery , a hole is drilled adjacent to the well and steam is pumped down. The hot water helps to push the oil out of the rock and up into the well.Exploration and Production (6): Transport: Exploration and Production (6): Transport United States Geological Survey Once extracted oil and gas must be sent to a refinery for processing Pipelines transport most of the world’s oil from well to refinery Massive Oil Tankers also play an important role in distribution Trans-Alaskan PipelineExploration and Production (7): At the Refinery: Exploration and Production (7): At the Refinery Before it can be used crude oil must be refined. Hydrocarbons can be separated using distillation , which produces different fractions (or types) of oil and gas Oil refinery Distillation Plant en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Anacortes_Refinery_31911.JPG en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Crude_Oil_Distillation.png Jet fuel Car fuel Road tarExploration and Production (8): Early History: Exploration and Production (8): Early History en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Abraham_Gesner.gif en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Oilfields_California.jpg Abraham Gesner (1797-1864) Californian oil gusher The modern era of oil usage began in 1846 when Gesner perfected the art of paraffin distillation. This triggered a massive worldwide boom in oil production. California was centre of activity in the early 1900s, famous for its gushers . en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Lucas_gusher.jpgExploration and Production (9): The Situation Today: Exploration and Production (9): The Situation Today USGS Global oil and gas occurrences are now well understood (provinces shown in green). Only Antarctica and the Arctic remain unexplored.Practical Exercise 2: Practical Exercise 2 The Oil Prospector GamePolitics (1): Fuel source: Politics (1): Fuel source 84% of crude oil is refined into fuel, principally for cars and planes Demand is ever increasing, especially due to growth of Chinese economy http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Shellgasstationlosthills.jpg blogs.sun.com/richb/resource/NBC_at_the_Pump.jpgPolitics (2): Other uses: Politics (2): Other uses The remaining 16% of crude oil is used for a range of purposes shown above as well as synthetic fibres, dyes and detergents Fertilizers and Pesticides Food additives Plastic en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:CD-R.jpg CDs and DVDs en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Lilit.jpg en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Konservering.jpgPolitics (3): Main Producers - OPEC: Politics (3): Main Producers - OPEC en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Opec_Organization_of_the_Petroleum_Exporting_Countries_countries.PNG Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is a group of 13 countries that produce 36% of the world’s oil, or 32 million barrels of oil per day. The biggest producer is Saudi Arabia , but Iran, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait and Venezuela are also major suppliersPolitics (4): Other Producers: Politics (4): Other Producers Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) produces 24% of all oil, or 21 million barrels per day. The USA is the biggest single producer in OECD but Mexico, Canada and the UK are also major suppliers Outside OECD, the states of the former Soviet Union are also major producers supplying a further 15% of global output en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:OECD-memberstates.pngPolitics (5): Supply and Demand: Politics (5): Supply and Demand In 2007, global consumption grew by 1.2 million barrels per day. OPEC and OECD nations can only raise production by a further 2.5 million barrels per day so a squeeze is on the cards en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:OilConsumptionpercapita.png USA uses 24% of global supply but China shows the biggest year-to-year increase in usage Oil consumption per person (darker reds indicate higher usage)Politics (6): Peak Oil: Politics (6): Peak Oil en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Hubbert_peak_oil_plot.svg en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Hubbert.jpg Hubbert (1903-1989) Era of energy crisis In 1956, Hubbert predicted that global oil production would peak around the Year 2000 and trigger an Energy Crisis with power blackouts and rising costs of energy and fuelPolitics (7): Rising Oil Prices: Politics (7): Rising Oil Prices en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Oil_Prices_Medium_Term.png $139 by June 2008 Oil prices have been steadily rising for several years and in June 2008 stand at a record high of $139 per barrel. Is the rise due to a squeeze in availability (peak oil) or are other political or economic factors to blame?Politics (8): Canada’s Tar Sands: Politics (8): Canada’s Tar Sands Higher oil prices and new technology mean unconventional oil deposits are now economically viable (e.g. tar sands) The Athabasca Deposit in Alberta contains 1.75 trillion barrels, or about half of the world’s proven oil reserves! i.treehugger.com/files/canada-tar-sands-01.jpg NASAPolitics (9): Global Warming: Politics (9): Global Warming Oil and Gas emit 15-30% less CO 2 than coal per watt of energy produced. Renewable energy is clean but not yet viable as fuel. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Coal_anthracite.jpg en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Windpark_Galicia.jpg en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Bluebbl.gif OILOil and Gas: Oil and Gas http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/ce/Oil_well.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Moscow_traffic_congestion.JPG NASA en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Oil_platform.jpg en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Ceratium_hirundinella.jpg You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.