1) Defining motivation.2) The relation between emotion and motivation.3) Theories of motivation. : 1) Defining motivation.2) The relation between emotion and motivation.3) Theories of motivation. Slide 2: Differences between every-day and psychological understanding of terms:
motivation Definitions of emotion in psychology : Definitions of emotion in psychology Each process of evaluation/apprisal (Jarymowicz, 1997).
Complex regulative processes that have many components (affective, physiological, content) and cannot be reduced to subjective feelings (Reykowski, 1992).
Specific regulation processes that are elicited in response to stimuli (coming from external environment or from the inside of the body) that are important for an individual (as a biological organism or as a person) (Nowa Encyklopedia Powszechna). Definition of motivation in psychology : Definition of motivation in psychology “Term used to describe all the mechanisms of initiating and continuing behavior. It refers to mechanisms that can be:
Either basic or complex,
Either internal or external,
Either affective or cognitive
(Lukaszewski, 2000) Slide 5: Function of emotion:
(finding those characteristics of objects and events that are important (have positive or negative meaning) for an individual and energizing the organism to respond in an appropriate way)?
Thus: emotion can elicit motivation! Slide 6: Motivation – process of regulation that guides human actions in order to achieve a particular state:
Change in physical or social world
Change in ones own situation, in Self
(sometimes it is not an end point that is important but the process of achieving it) Slide 7: Two characteristics of motivation:
The strength depends on:
Attractiveness of a achieving a goal (anticipated gratification)
How possible it is to achieve a goal (or how much do we believe in it) Slide 8: Motive – specific inner psychic state described as “sense of unfulfillment” and readiness to initiate an activity/action (motivational tension).
Motivational tension appears when both attractiveness of achieving a goal and our belief in achieving it are higher than 0. Slide 9: Causes of unfulfilled motives:
psychological needs (subjective sense of lack of something that is necessary for living and growth)
activation of affective patterns (avoiding stimuli that cause pleasant emotion/approaching stimuli that cause negative emotion)
factors that serve as distractors to our activity (frustration, stress, conflict, anxiety)
task formation (when something is not in accordance with our standards, norms)
activation of interests
activation of values (ex, when values important for us are threatened) Slide 10: Motivational tension is reduced when:
goal is achieved
when it just lasted for a long time (mechanisms of regulation become weak)
as a consequence of cyclic changes in an organism (ex. hormons)
under the influence of strong feelings and sudden reactions Theories of emotion : Theories of emotion STIMULUS ??? EMOTION : STIMULUS ??? EMOTION Theories of motivaton : Theories of motivaton Slide 14: Sociobiology (genes!)?
Learning theories (reinforcements/punishments!)?
Psychodynamic theories (unconscious drives!)?
Humanistic theories (needs: deprivation and being, need for selffullfillment!)?
Cognitive theory (cognitive balance!)?