Logical Fallacies

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By: arnel_sicily (34 month(s) ago)

thank you for this.. I'll be needing this for my debate and argumentation subject...

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Sure. I'm happy you think it would be useful. I just changed the permissions to allow the download of the presentation. Michael

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will you allow me to download this? it's really a good presentation. ill teach fallacies to high school students...

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Could I please download this fine presentation for my class?

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Presentation Transcript

Logical Fallacies : 

Logical Fallacies What is a Faulty Argument? Michael Leggs – Dept. of EnglishSaint Paul College, St. Paul, MN

Logical Fallacies : 

Logical Fallacies “Fallacy” comes from the Latin word fallacia, which means deceit or trick.

Logical Fallacies : 

Logical Fallacies A fallacy is an error of reasoning. These are flawed statements that often sound true.

Logical Fallacies : 

Logical Fallacies Nine Common Logical Fallacies

Logical Fallacy #1 : 

Logical Fallacy #1 Non Sequitur Latin for “It does not follow.”

Logical Fallacy #1 : 

Logical Fallacy #1 Any argument that takes the following form is a non sequitur: If A is true, then B is true. B is stated to be true. Therefore, A must be true.

Logical Fallacy #1 : 

Logical Fallacy #1 Non Sequitur Example 1: Racism is wrong. Therefore, we need affirmative action.

Logical Fallacy #1 : 

Logical Fallacy #1 Non Sequitur Example 2: "Smoking cigarettes is dangerous, but nearly everything in life has some danger, such as driving a car or crossing the street. So, if you are willing to drive a car, you should also be willing to smoke."

Logical Fallacy #1 : 

Logical Fallacy #1 Non Sequitur Example 1: “I don't care what you say.  We don't need any more bookshelves.  As long as the carpet is clean, we are fine.”

Logical Fallacy #2 : 

Logical Fallacy #2 Oversimplification Multiple causes are reduced to just one or a few (oversimplification) or a couple of causes are multiplied into many (exaggeration).

Logical Fallacy #2 : 

Logical Fallacy #2 Oversimplification Example 1: School violence has gone up and academic performance has gone down ever since organized prayer was banned at public schools. Therefore, prayer should be reintroduced, resulting in school improvement.

Logical Fallacy #2 : 

Logical Fallacy #2 Oversimplification Example 2: Education today isn't as good as it used to be—obviously, our teachers are not doing their jobs.

Logical Fallacy #2 : 

Logical Fallacy #2 Oversimplification Example 3:Since the new president took office, the economy has been declining—obviously, he is not doing a good job and is a detriment to the nation.

Logical Fallacy #3 : 

Logical Fallacy #3 Slippery Slope Asserting that some event must inevitably follow from another without any argument for the inevitability of the event in question. If A occurs, then the chances increase that B will occur.

Logical Fallacy #3 : 

Logical Fallacy #3 Slippery Slope Example 1: "We have to stop the tuition increase! The next thing you know, they'll be charging $40,000 a semester!"

Logical Fallacy #3 : 

Logical Fallacy #3 Slippery Slope Example 2: "You can never give anyone a break. If you do, they'll walk all over you."

Logical Fallacy #4 : 

Logical Fallacy #4 Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc “after this, therefore because of this”A occurred, then B occurred. Therefore, A caused B.

Logical Fallacy #4 : 

Logical Fallacy #4 Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc Example 1: More and more young people are attending high schools and colleges today than ever before. Yet there is more juvenile delinquency and more alienation among the young. This makes it clear that these young people are being corrupted by their education.

Logical Fallacy #4 : 

Logical Fallacy #4 Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc + =

Logical Fallacy #5 : 

Logical Fallacy #5 Begging the Question a form of Circular Reasoning Latin: “Petitio Principii” which literally means “a request for the beginning or premise.”

Logical Fallacy #5 : 

Logical Fallacy #5 Begging the Question Change is good because when things don’t remain the same, it is beneficial.

Logical Fallacy #5 : 

Logical Fallacy #5 Begging the Question Example 2: Michael is not telling the truth about the missing money. After all, he is a liar.

Logical Fallacy #5 : 

Logical Fallacy #5

Logical Fallacy #6 : 

Logical Fallacy #6 Either-Or Reasoning A claim that presents an artificially limited range of choices. Sometimes referred to as “False Dilemma”

Logical Fallacy #6 : 

Logical Fallacy #6 Either-Or Reasoning You're either for us, or against us. ?

Logical Fallacy #7 : 

Logical Fallacy #7 Ad Hominem Latin for “Against the man”

Logical Fallacy #7 : 

Logical Fallacy #7 Ad Hominem "You feel that abortion should be legal, but I disagree, because you are uneducated and poor."

Logical Fallacy #7 : 

Logical Fallacy #7 Ad Hominem Circumstantial Example 2: "He's physically addicted to nicotine. Of course he defends smoking!”

Logical Fallacies : 

Logical Fallacies Fallacies of Trickery or Distraction

Logical Fallacies : 

Logical Fallacies RED HERRING

Logical Fallacies : 

Logical Fallacies The “Red Herring” argument is one which distracts the audience from the issue through the introduction of some irrelevancy.

Logical Fallacies : 

Logical Fallacies Red Herring Example 1: “Guns don't kill people. People kill people.”

Red Herring : 

Red Herring Example 2: Police Officer: “Do you know why I pulled you over?” Motorist: “No, but shouldn’t you be spending your time going after real criminals like murderers and thieves?”

Logical Fallacies : 

Logical Fallacies Straw Man To set up a “straw man argument” is to create a position that is easy to refute, then attribute that position to the opponent.

Logical Fallacies : 

Logical Fallacies Straw Man Example 1: We should reinstate the military draft. People don't want to enter the military because they find it an inconvenience. But they should realize that there are more important things than convenience.

Logical Fallacies : 

Logical Fallacies Straw Man Example 2: "Opposition to the labor unions amounts to nothing more than opposition to safe working conditions for employees."

What Logical Fallacy Is This? : 

What Logical Fallacy Is This? Identify logical fallacies in the following examples. . .

What Logical Fallacy Is This? : 

What Logical Fallacy Is This? "If they don't have the guts to come up here in front of you and say, 'I don't want to represent you, I want to represent those special interests, the unions, the trial lawyers' ... if they don't have the guts, I call them girlie men." --Arnold Schwarzenegger (2004, referring to members of the California legislature) Ad Hominem

What Logical Fallacy Is This? : 

What Logical Fallacy Is This? “Some say that auto insurance rates need to be more strictly regulated, but how strict are regulations on health insurance?” Red Herring

What Logical Fallacy Is This? : 

What Logical Fallacy Is This? “Are we going to increase the number of police officers in this city, or are we going to abandon it to thugs, gangs, and drug dealers?” Either/Or(False Dilemma)

What Logical Fallacy Is This? : 

What Logical Fallacy Is This? “Since I got sick right after eating at Mickey’s Diner several times, I refuse to eat there again.” Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc

What Logical Fallacy Is This? : 

What Logical Fallacy Is This? "Tens of thousands of Americans have seen lights in the night sky which they could not identify. The existence of life on other planets is fast becoming certainty!" Non Sequitur