Forensic Aspects of Road Safety

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Forensic experts and contribution in CSI at the spot. Forensic can be demonstrated in terms: How and why the accident occurred. This presentation Demonstration of reconstruction of the spot. We have reported few representative case studies: Our own observations. Safety measures as required in road safety.

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Presented By: Dr. Mukesh Sharma M.Sc. Ph.D. (Mat. Sc.) Mukesh Sharma, D. W. Clemens , S. Jha and B L Ahuja SSO, Physics Division, State Forensic Science Laboratory, Rajasthan Jaipur – 302 016 Editor-in-Chief, Crime and Clue Magazine, USA Asstt. Director (Physics) State Forensic Science Laboratory, Raj. Jaipur – 302 016 Prof. and Head of Physics Deptt., M L Sukhadia University, Udaipur – 313 001 Forensic Aspect in Road Safety

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Contents of Presentation: Forensic experts and contribution in CSI at the spot Forensic can be demonstrated in terms: How and why the accident occurred ? Demonstration of reconstruction of the spot Few representative case studies: Our own observations Safety measures as required in road safety Dr. Mukesh Sharma, SSO, SFSL, Jaipur

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Dr. Mukesh Sharma, SSO, SFSL, Jaipur Forensic experts and contribution in CSI It is estimated that about a million of people are killed every year throughout the world as a results of road traffic accidents. In developing countries, occupants of private automobiles comprise the majority of traffic injury victims. Accident cases arise from the violation of statutes governing motor vehicle operations and typically require the driver of an automobile involved in an accident to stop, identify himself and his vehicle. It is duty of the driver to render aid to person(s) injured in the accident. These accidental reports usually contain information on traffic conditions, vehicle performance, road environment, driver characteristics, casualty demographics and injury severity level.

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Dr. Mukesh Sharma, SSO, SFSL, Jaipur Forensic experts and contribution in CSI….. It depends on casualty demographics, time of injury, hospital admission, mode of transport and vehicle. Such informations are mentioned in police records. The quality of police accident reports has also been examined in relation to the accuracy of accident attributes, vehicle performance, driver characteristics and accident causes. When comparing police reports with hospital records, the degree of the under-reporting of road casualties has been found to be quite significant.

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Dr. Mukesh Sharma, SSO, SFSL, Jaipur Forensic experts and contribution in CSI We have plotted the number of road accidents in Rajasthan in last five year (statistics of SCRB Raj.). Total number of people died and injured, due to road accident are shown in Fig. In year 2009 an increase of 7.83% compared to the year 2008 in deaths due to road accident is recorded.

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Dr. Mukesh Sharma, SSO, SFSL, Jaipur Forensic experts and contribution in CSI With an increasing use of vehicles, accidents due to them are so common now-a-days in India, that it is necessary for a forensic expert as well as the investigating officer to able to access the scene of occurrence, the mechanism by which they are caused. These days, in Rajasthan, Mobile Forensic Science Units are working at district levels, so that forensic experts can reach at that spot as early as possible. Foresnic Expert are required at the spot : Road traffic collision investigation Traffic collision reconstruction Vehicle & component examinations Expert witness statements & interviews (accepted in court) Auto insurance claims & investigation Detailed site inspections & locus reports; Civil litigation

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7 Mukesh Sharma, D Clemens (2010) : Sometimes the accident vehicle tells the story: A forensic case study; Crime & Clues http://www.crimeandclues.com Mukesh Sharma and Shailendra Jha : Communicated to Central Bureau of Investigation: e-bulletin (2011) This flow chart is for examination of vehicle accident: Spot of Occurrence Observations Photography Analytical work Vehicle / Motor cycle Tire Impressions / Skid Marks i) Dents ii) Scratches iii) Direction of scratches iv) Location of maximum damage on vehicle i) Length of skid marks ii) Width of skid marks iii) Direction of travel iv) Tire impressions Victim’s Injuries / Physical Evidence Circumstance / Spot of occurrence i ) Total width of road ii) Blood Detection iii) Tyre situation of vehicles iv) Break of Vehicle v) Footprints left by the driver of the suspect vehicle i ) Type of injuries on victim’s body ii)Radiator contents; oil and grease iii)Broken hardware left by the suspect vehicle iv) Glass or plastic fragments from headlights v) Parking lights and signal lights vi) Paint smears and chips. Hypothetical Conclusion Hit-n-Run Case Accidental case Circumstances Dr. Mukesh Sharma, SSO, SFSL, Jaipur

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Dr. Mukesh Sharma, SSO, SFSL, Jaipur Case Study I : - Our Observations: Forensic Finding:

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Dr. Mukesh Sharma, SSO, SFSL, Jaipur Case Study I : - Our Observations: Forensic Finding:

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Dr. Mukesh Sharma, SSO, SFSL, Jaipur How Forensic expert help in this present study Direction of dent Motor Cycle broken piece and parts (Tensile strength of the metallic component of the motorcycle) Scratches direction on body of victim Scratches on the motorcycle provide proper evidence of accident of the motorcycle. Why the accident was occur (in terms of road safety): 1. No road light was there on the road. No back view mirror on the bike. 2. No any signal of turn on the way. 3. Road was made of sand and stone. 4. Only one head Injury was found at the victim’s body, if he wore helmet on his head, he might had been survived.

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Dr. Mukesh Sharma, SSO, SFSL, Jaipur Another case study:

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Dr. Mukesh Sharma, SSO, SFSL, Jaipur Another case study: 1. Size of the head injury and dent on the middle Window metallic frame was same in dimension. 2. Blood and hair of the eye Brow and head was detected At the glass of the door. After Laboratory examination, the blood group was same and Hair were also same collected from the jeep and from the Victims body.

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Dr. Mukesh Sharma, SSO, SFSL, Jaipur Another case study: Skid Mark Analysis In a car accident, a skid mark is the mark a tire makes when a vehicle wheel stops rolling and slides on the surface of the road, much like that of an eraser leaving pieces of rubber on a paper, and is an important aspect of trace evidence analysis in forensic science.

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Dr. Mukesh Sharma, SSO, SFSL, Jaipur Another case study: Skid Mark Analysis Here f : drag factor (slideing Friction) D : length of the skid mark In forensic science, we define the constant as f , the drag factor for the road surface. We can conclude that f is a factor which depends on the nature of the tyre and the road surface but independent to the weight of the vehicles.

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Dr. Mukesh Sharma, SSO, SFSL, Jaipur Another case study: Skid Mark Analysis Different value of f : drag factor (slideing Friction) for different surfaces of road.

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Dr. Mukesh Sharma, SSO, SFSL, Jaipur Another case study: Expert Opinion at spot : 1. Thoroughly examination of the dents and scratches on the vehicle revealed that the possibility of collision of the vehicle with the other vehicle was ruled out. 2. The possibility of self misbalancing during sharp turn and at the mean time bursting of the rear right side tyre is not be ruled out. 3. Sharp turn on the road and no signal board of sharp turn was observed at the spot.

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Dr. Mukesh Sharma, SSO, SFSL, Jaipur Case study: For insurance claim One person’s wife was dead during an accident while they were going from Banswara to Ahemdabad. The person left his wife in the car and went to fetch a water bottle. In the mean while, one truck came from back side and got stuck. The wife of that person was died at the spot. (This case was registered under Accidental IPC) After one and half year, one more accident occur at the same place and with the same family but this time the victim was a young boy age about 16 years, son of the same person, whose wife was dead last year. Coincidentally, the Investigating Officer (IO) of both the cases was same. The second accident at the same place create a doubt in the IO’s mind.

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Dr. Mukesh Sharma, SSO, SFSL, Jaipur Case study: For insurance claim The IO discussed the case with me and I visited the spot. Observations: No sharp turn. Both accident took place in the day time. In both cases, the truck was involved. We suggested to trace-out mobile phone details of the person whose wife and kid were killed. Very interesting results !!!!

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Dr. Mukesh Sharma, SSO, SFSL, Jaipur Case study: For insurance claim Results: As per the estimated time, the person was in touch with a particular mobile number. The IO inquired about the phone number. It was his truck driver’s number. After interrogation from the Driver, he told full plan of that person. Conclusion: The person planned an accidental death of his wife and son for the insurance claims of about 40 lakh rupees. Now the person and the driver are behind the bars.

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Dr. Mukesh Sharma, SSO, SFSL, Jaipur Case study: No proper signal and precaution used

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Dr. Mukesh Sharma, SSO, SFSL, Jaipur Case study: No Proper signal No gate for train crossing No signal No precaution sign board No speed limit board No speed breaker No underconstruction sign board

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Dr. Mukesh Sharma, SSO, SFSL, Jaipur Case study: No Proper signal and precaution used As per news paper: 1. No person was their to flag the signal 2. The site was under construction but there was no sign board.

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Dr. Mukesh Sharma, SSO, SFSL, Jaipur Software's available for Accident Reconstruction: Dirigo Software for Accident Reconstruction MARC-1 free downloadable very useful to reconstruct the Accident.

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Dr. Mukesh Sharma, SSO, SFSL, Jaipur Software's available for Accident Reconstruction: SPEED calculations using MARC-1 MOTOR VEHICLE ACCIDENT RECONSTRUCTION AND CAUSE ANALYSIS *********** PROGRAM 'K' RUN FOR demo *********** SKIDDING ON TRANSVERSE SLOPE Information For Vehicle ========================================================= Drag Factor, g-UNITS: ===> 0.60 Lateral Skidding Distance, FT: ===> 12.00 Lateral Angle or Road Slope, DEG: ===> 2.00 ========================================================= Initial Speed for Skidding on Slope, MPH: ===> 86.13 Longitudinal Skidding Distance, FT: ===> 412.57 =========================================================

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Dr. Mukesh Sharma, SSO, SFSL, Jaipur Conclusions: Traffic collisions can result in injury, property damage, and death. A number of factors contribute to the risk of collision including; vehicle design, speed of operation, road design, and driver impairment. Worldwide motor vehicle collisions lead to significant death and disability as well as significant financial costs to both society and the individual. It is essential that these crimes be solved in order to serve the victims and their families with justice.

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Dr. Mukesh Sharma, SSO, SFSL, Jaipur Suggestions for road safety: Results from accident reconstructions are also useful in developing recommendations for making roads and highways safer, as well as improving safety aspects of motor vehicle designs. On safer side, at every critical turn: turn sign-board must be there made of fluorescent/refractive material, so that can be seen at dark or dim-light. Median barrier design, bridge rails, crash cushions, embankment slopes, breakaway signs, light poles and utility pole must be on the national highways.

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Dr. Mukesh Sharma, SSO, SFSL, Jaipur Suggestions for road safety: 3. In every zone, the authorities must define the high risk zone (accident area) and must define location where the most accidents occur. Maintenance standards, construction zone standards, tolerable heights must be define on highways. 4. On all NH connecting to the villages, must have speed breaker at the turn and sign-board of merger in between roads. Warning signs, signals, markings and road designs that provide information consistent with driver expectancy through positive guidance, which minimize driver distractions, confusion and work load.

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Dr. Mukesh Sharma, SSO, SFSL, Jaipur

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Dr. Mukesh Sharma, SSO, SFSL, Jaipur Thank you all

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