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Fourth Edition ESSENTIALS BUSINESS Ronald J. Ebert & Ricky W. Griffin Copyright ©2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. PART 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Understanding People in Organizations

Chapter 8:

Chapter 8 Motivating, Satisfying, and Leading Employees

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“A leader is best when people barely know he exists, when his work is done… they will say: We did it ourselves.” ~ Lao-Tzu, c. 600 B.C. “Leadership is the art of getting someone else to do something you want done because he wants to do it.” ~ Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1890 - 1969

Key Topics :

Key Topics Psychological contracts in the workplace Job satisfaction and employee morale Theories of employee motivation Job satisfaction and employee motivation Managerial styles of leadership

Psychological Contract A Set of Employment Expectations:

Psychological Contract A Set of Employment Expectations Contributions: What does each employee expect to contribute to the organization? Inducements: What will the organization provide to each employee in return?

Satisfied Employees Are More Productive and More Committed:

Satisfied Employees Are More Productive and More Committed Job Satisfaction: Degree of enjoyment employees derive from doing their jobs High Morale: An overall positive employee attitude toward the workplace Low Turnover: A low percentage of employees leave each year MORALE TURNOVER TURNOVER MORALE

Raising Morale Is a High Priority When Unemployment Is Low:

Raising Morale Is a High Priority When Unemployment Is Low NA

Fortune Magazine’s 100 Best Companies to Work For:

Fortune Magazine’s 100 Best Companies to Work For Edward Jones #1 Cisco Systems #15 Microsoft #28 Patagonia #41 Starbucks #58 Wal-Mart #94 “It's not easy being good these days at least if you're an employer.” Source: Fortune Magazine, February 4 th , 2002

Highly Motivated Employees Are Critical to Business Success:

Highly Motivated Employees Are Critical to Business Success Classical Behavior: The Hawthorne Studies Contemporary Motivation: The set of forces that cause people to behave in certain ways

The Human Resources Model Theory X and Theory Y:

The Human Resources Model Theory X and Theory Y Theory X People are lazy. People lack ambition and dislike responsibility. People are self-centered. People resist change. People are gullible and not very bright. Theory Y People are energetic. People are ambitious and seek responsibility. People can be selfless. People want to contribute to business growth and change. People are intelligent.

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs:

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self- Actualization Needs Esteem Needs Social Needs Security Needs Physiological Needs General Examples Organizational Examples Self-Fulfillment Challenging Job Self- Actualization Needs Status Job Title Esteem Needs Friendship Friends at Work Social Needs Stability Pension Plan Security Needs Shelter Salary Physiological Needs

Two Factor Theory:

Hygiene Factors Supervisors Working Conditions Interpersonal Relations Pay & Security Company Policies & Administration Motivation Factors Achievement Recognition The Work Itself Responsibility Advancement & Growth Two Factor Theory Dissatisfaction Satisfaction

Expectancy Theory:

Expectancy Theory Effort-Performance Issue Performance-Reward Issue Rewards-Personal Goals Issue Individual Effort Individual Performance Organizational Rewards Personal Goals

Equity Theory:

Equity Theory Employees evaluate their treatment relative to the treatment of others Inputs: Employee contributions to their jobs Outputs: What employees receive in return The perceived ratio of contribution to return determines perceived equity

Strategies for Enhancing Job Satisfaction and Morale:

Strategies for Enhancing Job Satisfaction and Morale Reinforcement/behavior modification Management by objectives Participative management and empowerment Job enrichment and job redesign Modified work schedules

Reinforcement / Behavior Modification Theory:

Reinforcement / Behavior Modification Theory Positive Reinforcement Punishment When rewards are tied directly to performance When negative consequences are attached directly to undesirable behavior

Management by Objectives Collaborative Goal-setting:

Identifying Resources Counseling Setting Verifiable Goals & Clear Plans Meeting Management by Objectives Collaborative Goal-setting Collaborative Goal Setting & Planning Communicating Organizational Goals & Plans Periodic Review Evaluation

Participative Management and Empowerment:

Participative Management and Empowerment Increasing job satisfaction by encouraging participation Team management represents a growing trend

Job Enrichment and Job Redesign:

Job Enrichment and Job Redesign Job Enrichment: Adding one or more motivating factors to job activities Job Redesign: Designing a better fit between workers and their jobs Combining tasks Forming natural work groups Establishing client relationships

Modified Work Schedules:

Work share programs Flextime programs and alternative workplace strategies Telecommuting and virtual offices Modified Work Schedules

Sample Flextime Scheduling:

Sample Flextime Scheduling Joe Sue Pat 6:00 A.M. 7:00 A.M. 8:00 A.M. 9:00 A.M. 10:00 A.M. 11:00 A.M. 12:00 NOON 1:00 P.M. 2:00 P.M. 3:00 P.M. 4:00 P.M. 5:00 P.M. 6:00 P.M. Flexible Time Core Time Flexible Time Core Time Flexible Time

Evaluating Modified Schedules and Alternative Workplaces:

Evaluating Modified Schedules and Alternative Workplaces Advantages More satisfied, committed employees Less congestion Disadvantages Challenging to coordinate and manage Poor fit for some workers

Managerial Leadership:

The process of motivating others to work to meet specific objectives Managerial Leadership

Five Fundamental Leadership Practices:

Challenge the process Inspire a shared vision Enable others to act Model the way Encourage the heart Five Fundamental Leadership Practices Source:

Leadership at General Electric “Four E’s of GE Leadership”:

Leadership at General Electric “Four E’s of GE Leadership” A high energy level The ability to energize others around common goals The edge to make tough decisions The ability to consistently execute and deliver on promises Source: Jack Welch Tells It Straight from the Gut , Anderson Assets, Winter 2002

Managerial Styles:

Managerial Styles Contingency Approach The appropriate style in any situation is contingent on the unique elements of that situation Autocratic Style Democratic Style Free-rein Style

Motivation and Leadership in the Twenty-first Century:

Motivation and Leadership in the Twenty-first Century Motivation Security and pay are no longer enough Leadership “Coach” mentality Diversity Flexibility

Chapter Review:

Chapter Review Describe psychological contracts Discuss the importance of job satisfaction and employee morale Summarize the most important theories of employee motivation Describe strategies to improve job satisfaction and employee motivation Discuss different managerial styles

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