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The Effects of Visual Imagery on Intrinsic Motivation and Athletic Performance in Junior College Football Players:

The Effects of Visual Imagery on Intrinsic Motivation and Athletic Performance in Junior College Football Players Matt Kirk PE 589 Dr. A. Alstot SPRing 2 2016

Introduction:

Introduction What is Imagery? The idea that imagery can be used as a cognitive function traces back to the early Greeks. Aristotle stated “The soul never thinks without an image.” People report that the majority of their everyday experiences of imagery occur spontaneously and seem to serve no identifiable purpose, but on the other hand, they also report sometimes using imagery deliberately to solve problems, and regulate emotion and motivation ( Kosslyn , Seger 1990).

Purpose and Questions:

Purpose and Questions The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of visual imagery on intrinsic motivation and athletic performance in junior college football players. The central research questions were: a) What is the effect of imagery on the intrinsic motivation in junior college football players? b) What is the effect of imagery on performance in junior college football players?

Faith, Values , Beliefs Integration:

Faith, Values , Beliefs Integration Proverbs 24:32: I applied my heart to what I observed and learned a lesson from what I saw .   This Proverb relates to my research because my research involves using observational research to make conclusions on athletic performance. Visual imagery and sports psychology as a whole has always intrigued me, and has been somewhat of a passion for me. So it was very easy and natural to apply my heart to my research, learn a lesson, and to make conclusions. I expect to see definitive answers from the control group and research group in my study that will answer my research questions. 

Scholarly Review #1:

Scholarly Review #1 The researchers of this study examined how college athletes used imagery during weight training. The authors objective were to examine the frequency of imagery use among collegiate athletes who were required to lift, as well as their perceptions of the effectiveness of the images (Short & Silbernagel , 2007). Procedure: The participants in the study were 295 division 1 and division 2 college athletes including 138 men and 157 women. The athletes completed a modified version of the “Weight Lifting Imagery Questionnaire”. According to Short & Silbernagel (2007), the WLIQ has 3 subscales: appearance imagery that focuses on the attainment of a fit looking body, energy imagery that has to do with getting “psyched up” or feeling energized, and technique imagery that relates to performing the skill with excellent technique and great form.

Scholarly Review #1 (cont):

Scholarly Review #1 ( cont ) Results indicated that appearance imagery was used and considered the most effective, followed by technique imagery and energy imagery (Short & Silbernagel 2007) The author’s final conclusions recommended strength coaches should focus on appearance imagery and technique imagery while including some energy imagery clues from time to time (Short & Silbernagel 2007). This study is relevant to my purpose statement because it deals with imagery and its effects on intrinsic motivation, and performance

Scholarly Review # 2:

Scholarly Review # 2 Bigliassi & Kanthack (2014) researched the effect of a single mental training session on the free throw performance and self-efficacy of young basketball players. Participants were 11 young basketball players from with a mean age of 17.6 years, and mean playing time of 5.9 years. All participants were from a youth league. The participants in the imagery group were instructed to watch a video of players from the NBA making free-throws to provide them with images of successful free throw shooting ( Bigliassi & Kanthack 2014).

Scholarly Review #2 (cont):

Scholarly Review #2 ( cont ) After the 1 minute video had finished, participants were told to sit down, close their eyes, and try to imagine the entire free-throw from beginning to the follow through. Imagery participants were then sent to the basketball court to perform the free-throw test , as were control group who received no imagery training. Data showed an 84% likelihood that mental imagery training had a beneficial effect on performance in up to two free throws ( Bigliassi & Kanthack 2014). This research related to my purpose statement because it deals with imagery and its effect on performance.

Scholarly Review #3:

Scholarly Review #3 The author of the this study used a combination of motivational general arousal, psyching up imagery, motivational general mastery imagery, and coping imagery to examine if imagery increased athletic performance in track and field events ( Degross 2013) Participants in the study were college track and field athletes between the ages of 18-24 years of age. Only the athletes that participated in the running events were used for the research . The Sport Motivational Scale, was used by the researcher to assess intrinsic motivation of athletes. The second questionnaire given to the athletes was the vividness of imagery questionnaire.

Scholarly Review #3 (cont):

Scholarly Review #3 ( cont ) According to Degross , the SMS was administered prior to an imagery script, followed by an imagery script, and this was done once a week for two weeks, with a total of two imagery sessions. The effects of the imagery session on the intrinsic motivation was assessed by comparing the baseline self-evaluation of the SMS with the post imagery report on motivation from the experimental group. According to Degross (2013), the results showed that the experimental group scored higher on scores for intrinsic motivation and coach athlete relationships. These results showed that the effects of imagery on intrinsic motivation were found to be most beneficial if the imagery were MGM or coping imagery. This research is almost identical to portions of my research. The author of this study examined the effects of visual imagery on intrinsic motivation and athletic performance.

Methodology:

Methodology Participants engaged in a research project that included both a intervention group and a control group. The intervention group listened to an imagery script before answering the sport motivational scale survey . The type of imagery used for the script was psyched up imagery and Motivational General Mastery. The control group did not receive an imagery script, but still answered the survey questions. Both groups were then graded on performance. This cycle repeated for two weeks, two times a week. The participants (N=22) in this study were all male junior college football players between the ages of 18 and 22. The quantitative research study used the Likert scale Sport Motivational Survey. Observations of performance were then assessed from practice film using a score sheet to assess performance.

Results:

Results Preliminary Analysis The participants (N=22) were all male junior college football players. The participants age range was between 19-22, M=20.5. The participants were all starters, with 11 being on offense, and 11 being on defense. All participants were academically eligible to play, and physically and mentally able to participate. Of the participants, 13 (59%) were African American, 7 (31%) were Polynesian, and 2 (9%) were white.  

Results (cont):

Results ( cont ) Main Analysis The first analysis was to assess the intrinsic motivation of both the intervention group and the control group. To examine the relationship between visual imagery and intrinsic motivation, 13 Likert scale questions were posed to both groups using the Sport Motivational Survey. Participants were assigned to groups by placing half of the offense and half of the defense in each group, so that both sides of the ball were represented evenly.

Results (Cont):

Results ( Cont ) The intervention group received a 15 minute imagery session twice a week for two weeks before practice, while answering the Sport Motivation Scale (SMS-28) before and after the session. The control group answered the SMS, and went out to practice without any imagery session. The results indicated the following: 100% of the responses of the intervention group fell between corresponds a lot and corresponds exactly for the SMS. For the control group, 40% of the responses on the SMS fell on corresponds a little, 40% fell in corresponds moderately, and 20% fell in corresponds a lot. The Likert scale questions from the SMS, were based on the question prompt “Why do you practice sport?”

Results (Cont):

Results ( Cont ) The subcategories included the following: For pleasure of learning, for discovery, for pleasure of mastery, for improving weaknesses, for excitement of competition, for satisfaction of perfection, for intense emotions, for the challenge, for learning new techniques, for the love of being immersed in the sport, and for learning new strategy. The results showed that the intervention  group had higher scores of intrinsic motivation than the control group by a mean of 6.5 on the Likert scale questions to 4.5 for the control group. The results suggest that the imagery sessions performed by the intervention group increased the intrinsic motivation of the intervention group, to that of the control group. 

Results (Cont):

Results ( Cont ) Likert Scale For pleasure of learning For discovery Pleasure of mastery Improving weakness For excitement of comp For satisfaction of perfection For intense emotions For the challenge   Learning new techniques Does not Correspond-1 - - - - - - - - - Corresponds A little-2-3 - - - - - - - - - Corresponds Moderately-4 - - - - - - - - - Corresponds A lot-5-6 9 (81%) 9 (81%) 5 (45%) 4 (36%) 4 (36%) 4 (36%) 3 (27%) 9 (81%) 6 (54%) Corresponds Exactly 7 2 (18%) 2 (18%) 6 (54%) 7 (63%) 7 (63%) 7 (63%) 8 (72%) 2 (18%) 5 (45%) Likert Scale For being immersed For discovering new strategies Does not Correspond-1 - - Corresponds a little-2-3 - - Corresponds Moderately-4 - - Corresponds a lot-5-6 10 (90.1%) 6 (54.5%) Corresponds exactly -7 1 (9.9%) 5 (45.5%) SMS-28 Results for intervention group. Why do you practice sport?

Results (Cont) SMS-28 Results for control group. Why do you practice sport? :

Results ( Cont ) SMS-28 Results for control group. Why do you practice sport? Likert Scale For pleasure of learning For discovery Pleasure of mastery Improving weakness For excitement of comp For satisfaction of perfection For intense emotions For the challenge   Learning new techniques Does not Correspond-1 - - - - - - - - - Corresponds A little-2-3 - - 3 (27%) 2 (18%) 4 (36%) 2 2 5 (45%) - Corresponds Moderately-4 3 (27%) 7 (63%) 5 (45%) 4 (36%) 3 (27%) 4 (36%) 5 (45%) 5 (45%) 8 (73%) Corresponds A lot-5-6 8 (73%) 4 (36%) 3 (27%) 5 (45%) 4 (36%) 5 (45%) 4 (36%) 1 3 (27%) Corresponds Exactly 7 - - - - - - - - - Likert Scale For being immersed For discovering new strategies Does not Correspond-1 1 (.09%) - Corresponds a little-2-3 3 (27%) - Corresponds Moderately-4 1 (.09%) 8 (73%)  Corresponds a lot-5-6 6 (54%) 3 (27%) Corresponds exactly 7 - -

Results (Cont):

Results ( Cont ) The second analysis was to examine the relationship between visual imagery and athletic performance. All 22 starters were graded based on their performance in practice in 1 on 1’s, 7 on 7 pass, and whole team 11 on 11. Every practice was filmed, and a generic grading sheet was used to assess performance of the athletes. The grading sheet that was used included the following: Alignment and Assignment, made tackle, missed tackle, cleared block, no clear block, pass deflection, interception, caused fumble, fumble recovery, big hits, pancakes, pass completions, pass receptions, dropped balls, incomplete passes, fumbles, yards gained. (See Appendix C for performance grade sheet.) After averaging score sheets on performance , there were no large differences in performance for either control or intervention group.

Results (Cont) Offensive Score Sheets:

Results ( Cont ) Offensive Score Sheets Names Alignment No Alignment Assignment No Assignment Block Missed Block Completion Int Group 1 QB 120 0 95 25     54 Cont. Group 1 RB 120 0 110 10 9 2 NA     Int Group 2 OL 120 0 107 13 107 13 NA Cont Group 2 OL 120 0 109 11 109 11 NA Int Group 3 OL 120 0 112 8 112 8 NA Cont Group 3 OL 120 0 107 13 107 13 NA Int Group 4 OL 120 0 115 5 115 5 NA Cont. Group 4 TE 117 3 109 8 38 7 NA Int Group 5 WR 112 8 110 10 6 2 NA Cont Group 5 WR 114 6 114 6 9 1 NA Int Group 6 WR 110 10 110 10 6 2 NA

Results (Cont) Offensive Score Sheets:

Results ( Cont ) Offensive Score Sheets Names Incompletion Reception N. Reception Fumble Pancake TD Big Play Int Group 1 QB 56 NA NA 4 NA 7 4 Cont Group 1 RB NA 9 3 2 NA 4 1 Int Group 2 OL NA NA NA NA 3 NA NA Cont Group 2 OL NA NA NA NA 2 NA NA Int Group 3 OL     NA NA NA NA 3 NA NA Cont Group 3 OL NA NA NA NA 3 NA NA Int Group 4 OL NA NA NA NA 2 NA NA Cont Group 4 TE NA 10 3 0 0 1 0 Int Group 5 WR NA 18 6 0 0 4 2 Cont Group 5 WR NA 9 5 0 0 1 1 Int Group 6 WR NA 8 5 0 0 1 1

Results (Cont) Defensive Score Sheets:

Results ( Cont ) Defensive Score Sheets   Alignment No Alignment Assignment No assignment Clear block No clear block Int Pass Def   Sack Int Group 12 DE 116 4 113 7 80 40 0 3 5 Cont Group 12 DE 116 4 115 5 76 44 0 2 5 Int Group 13 DT 110 10 96 24 60 60 0 0 2 Cont Group 13 DT 109 11 98 22 70 50 0 0 1 Int Group 14 LB 118 2 114 6 45 17 2 2 2 Cont Group 14 LB 115 5 112 8 47 15 2 4 2 Int Group 15 LB 118 2 115 5 34 10 1 1 1 Cont Group 15 FS 115 5 112 8 6 2 3 5 0 Int Group 16 SS 115 5 115 5 3 1 2 6 0 Contol Group 16 CB 113 7 100 10 4 7 2 4 0 Int Group 17 CB 112 8 112 8 4 6 1 5 0 Performance Grade Sheets Defense

Results (Cont) Defensive Score Sheet:

Results ( Cont ) Defensive Score Sheet Names Tackle Missed Tackle Caused Fumble Fumble Recovery QB hurry Int Group 12 DE 6 1 2 2 15 Cont Group 12 DE 5 2 1 1 18 Int Group 13 DT 16 1 0 1 8 Cont Group 13 DT 12 2 0 1 7 Int Group 14 LB 21 4 0 1 2 Cont Group 14 LB 16 6 1 0 3 Int Group 15 LB 19 4 0 0 3 Cont Group 15 FS 8 2 0 0 NA Int Group 16 SS   7 2 0 0 NA Cont Group 16 CB 3 3 0 0 NA Int Group 17 CB 3 2 0 0 NA

Discussion:

Discussio n There  has been evidence of both performance and intrinsic motivation being improved through the use of imagery in past experiments  ( Degross , 2013, Guillot 2013, Martin 1995, Short & Silbernagel 2007,). In regards to imagery and intrinsic motivation, the  current study showed differences on the Sport motivation survey (SMS) in intrinsic motivation for the group who received imagery training as opposed to the group who received no training. The results showed that the research group had higher scores of intrinsic motivation than the control group by a mean of 6.5 on the Likert scale questions to 4.5 for the control group. The results suggest that the imagery sessions performed by the intervention group increased the intrinsic motivation of the intervention group, to that of the control group. In another study conducted by Degross (2013)  the researcher examined a combination of motivational general arousal psyching up imagery, motivational general mastery imagery, and coping imagery to examine if imagery increased athletic performance in track and field events. The research also examined if a positively perceived coach athlete relationship produced increases in intrinsic motivation and improved overall performance in track and field athletes the results showed that the experimental group scored higher on scores for intrinsic motivation and coach athlete relationships . These results showed that the effects of imagery on intrinsic motivation were found to be most beneficial if the imagery were MGM or coping imagery. The author’s final claims state “Track and field athletes prefer MGM and coping imagery because it allows them to feel confident and in control of their competition anxiety symptoms” ( Degross 2013).

Discusssion (Cont):

Discusssion ( Cont ) In regards to imagery and athletic performance, the current study showed no  difference between the intervention group and the control group. The 22 players in my study were graded on grading sheets we use as coaches for execution. Some of the categories of that execution included alignment, assignment, made or missed tackles, made or missed blocks, clearing or no clearing of blocks, interceptions, pass deflections, sacks, pancake blocks, receptions, completed passes, incomplete passes, dropped balls, fumbles, fumble recoveries, yards, and touchdowns . This data is in opposition to existing research on the connection between imagery and athletic performance. Ploszay (2006)  examined the effectiveness of a training program consisting of multisensory imagery and simulated movements on golf putting performance. Ploszay (2006) researched four golfers, all used imagery training in an attempt to increase putt performance. According to Ploszay , the data for golfer 4 represent some evidence that the procedure produced increases in putts made on a consistent basis over sessions. Golfer 4, across all five post-intervention sessions, putts made performance met or exceeded the best performance for 95% of the baseline sessions. Golfer 4’s baseline data were also highly variable, but following the intervention became much more stable, with 8 or 9 putts being made per session (2006).

Implications:

Implications What are the benefits of the research in this current study? Who will benefit and how? For coaches who are trying to motivate they’re team before games, or to simply increase motivation before practice in an attempt to increase execution of skills, techniques, and performance, this research will be beneficial. The research in this study includes key terms of different types of imagery that coaches can use for different types of athletes. For example : a football coach can use psyched up imagery in the locker room for a pre-game speech in an attempt to get his team excited, get they’re blood pressure and adrenaline pumping, and to get his team ready for competition. A tennis coach can use a cognitive general approach to imagery which includes the athlete picturing serving the ball over the net in a particular area . A golf coach can use the cognitive specific approach which includes a rehearsal of a sport skills, sensory mastery, and emotions in an attempt to master the skill control ones emotions . A strength and conditioning coach can use the motivational general mastery approach which includes feelings of confidence, strong emotions, and as many senses as possible. A basketball coach can use imagery to help players make two free throws by visually imaging the correct form, trajectory, rythm , and follow through.

Future Recommendations:

Future Recommendations After reading several scholarly journal articles on imagery, one aspect of the research I left out was to survey the participant’s ability to use imagery. There is a survey the Image ability scale survey, which surveys the athlete’s ability to visually imagine execution, technique, strategy, and skill. If I repeated this study I would include the following research question: What is the relationship between imagery use, imagery effectiveness and confidence in community college football players? Silbernagel et al (2007)  examined athlete’s use of exercise imagery during weight training (2007). According to Silbernagel et al, athletes found imagery to be more effective if they had previous training in imagery. They’re recommendation was that strength coaches should not only give cues to the athletes but also spend some time teaching athletes to image (2007).  

Conclusion:

Conclusion For the research question “what is the effect of imagery and intrinsic motivation in junior college football players”, the results of the study showed an increase in intrinsic motivation for the intervention group who received imagery training as opposed to the control group who received no imagery training. For the research question “what is the effect of imagery and athletic performance in junior college football players?” there was no difference between the two groups. The results of the research shows that the imagery session may have had a direct effect on the intrinsic motivation of the student athletes.

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