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PE 584 Presentation Ch1-3

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The Effects of Visual Imagery on Intrinsic Motivation and Athletic Performance in Junior College Football Players:

The Effects of Visual Imagery on Intrinsic Motivation and Athletic Performance in Junior College Football Players Matt Kirk PE 584 Dr. A. Alstot SPR. 1 2016

Introduction:

Introduction What is Imagery? The idea that imagery can be used as a cognitive function traces back to the early Greeks. Aristotle stated “The soul never thinks without an image.” People report that the majority of their everyday experiences of imagery occur spontaneously and seem to serve no identifiable purpose, but on the other hand, they also report sometimes using imagery deliberately to solve problems, and regulate emotion and motivation ( Kosslyn , Seger 1990).

Purpose and Questions:

Purpose and Questions The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of visual imagery on intrinsic motivation and athletic performance in junior college football players. The central research questions were: a) What is the effect of imagery on the intrinsic motivation in junior college football players? b) What is the effect of imagery on performance in junior college football players?

Faith, Values , Beliefs Integration:

Faith, Values , Beliefs Integration Proverbs 24:32: I applied my heart to what I observed and learned a lesson from what I saw .   This Proverb relates to my research because my research involves using observational research to make conclusions on athletic performance. Visual imagery and sports psychology as a whole has always intrigued me, and has been somewhat of a passion for me. So it was very easy and natural to apply my heart to my research, learn a lesson, and to make conclusions. I expect to see definitive answers from the control group and research group in my study that will answer my research questions. 

Scholarly Review #1:

Scholarly Review #1 The researchers of this study examined how college athletes used imagery during weight training (Short & Silbernagel , 2007). The authors objective were to examine the frequency of imagery use among collegiate athletes who were required to lift, as well as their perceptions of the effectiveness of the images (Short & Silbernagel , 2007). Procedure: The participants in the study were 295 division 1 and division 2 college athletes including 138 men and 157 women. The athletes completed a modified version of the “Weight Lifting Imagery Questionnaire”. According to Short & Silbernagel (2007), the WLIQ has 3 subscales: appearance imagery that focuses on the attainment of a fit looking body, energy imagery that has to do with getting “psyched up” or feeling energized, and technique imagery that relates to performing the skill with excellent technique and great form.

Scholarly Review #1 (cont):

Scholarly Review #1 ( cont ) Results indicated that appearance imagery was used and considered the most effective, followed by technique imagery and energy imagery (Short & Silbernagel 2007 The author’s final conclusions recommended strength coaches should focus on appearance imagery and technique imagery while including some energy imagery clues from time to time (Short & Silbernagel 2007). This study is relevant to my purpose statement because it deals with imagery and its effects on intrinsic motivation, and performance

Scholarly Review # 2:

Scholarly Review # 2 Bigliassi & Kanthack (2014) researched the effect of a single mental training session on the free throw performance and self-efficacy of young basketball players. Participants were 11 young basketball players from with a mean age of 17.6 years, and mean playing time of 5.9 years. All participants were from a youth league. The participants in the imagery group were instructed to watch a video of players from the NBA making free-throws to provide them with images of successful free throw shooting ( Bigliassi & Kanthack 2014).

Scholarly Review #2 (cont):

Scholarly Review #2 ( cont ) After the 1 minute video had finished, participants were told to sit down, close their eyes, and try to imagine the entire free-throw from beginning to the follow through. Imagery participants were then sent to the basketball court to perform the free-throw test , as were control group who received no imagery training. Data showed an 84% likelihood that mental imagery training had a beneficial effect on performance in up to two free throws ( Bigliassi & Kanthack 2014). This research related to my purpose statement because it deals with imagery and its effect on performance.

Scholarly Review #3:

Scholarly Review #3 The author of the this study used a combination of motivational general arousal, psyching up imagery, motivational general mastery imagery, and coping imagery to examine if imagery increased athletic performance in track and field events. Participants in the study were college track and field athletes between the ages of 18-24 years of age. Only the athletes that participated in the running events were used for the research . The Sport Motivational Scale, was used by the researcher to assess intrinsic motivation of athletes. The second questionnaire given to the athletes was the vividness of imagery questionnaire.

Scholarly Review #3 (cont):

Scholarly Review #3 ( cont ) According to Degross , the SMS was administered prior to an imagery script, followed by an imagery script, and this was done once a week for two weeks, with a total of two imagery sessions. The effects of the imagery session on the intrinsic motivation was assessed by comparing the baseline self-evaluation of the SMS with the post imagery report on motivation from the experimental group. According to Degross , the results showed that the experimental group scored higher on scores for intrinsic motivation and coach athlete relationships. These results showed that the effects of imagery on intrinsic motivation were found to be most beneficial if the imagery were MGM or coping imagery. This research is almost identical to portions of my research. The author of this study examined the effects of visual imagery on intrinsic motivation and athletic performance.

Methodology:

Methodology Participants engaged in a research project that included both a control group and a research group. The research group listened to an imagery script before answering the sport motivational scale survey. The control group did not receive an imagery script, but still answered the survey questions. Both groups were then graded on performance . This cycle repeated for two weeks, two times a week. The participants (N=22) in this study were all male junior college football players between the ages of 18 and 22. Qualitative research study using the Likert scale Sport Motivational Survey. Observations of performance from practice film using a rubric to assess performance.

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