Breakdown of the Empire and its Decline

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Breakdown of the Empire and its Decline:

Breakdown of the Empire and its Decline The Fall of Rome

Problems with Succession:

Problems with Succession No effective way for one Emperor to succeed another Usually name an heir and the Senate approved Marcus Aurelius dies without naming an heir Civil Wars break out from 234-284 CE 26 Emperors rule in these 50 years Very bloody/violent time period

Economy Weakens:

Economy Weakens Trade routes no longer secure Bandits and pirates Running out of gold and silver Devalued the coins Made coins with gold or silver “shell” Leads to inflation Agriculture suffered due to loss of fertile soil Warring also destroyed farmland High taxes for everyone

Breakdown of the Military:

Breakdown of the Military Soldiers again become loyal to their generals and not to Rome Emperors begin to hire foreign mercenaries (paid soldiers) Little loyalty or respect for saving the empire

Diocletian:

Diocletian Made Emperor in 284 Supported by his personal army Divides Empire in half Takes the wealthy Eastern half for himself Appoints Co-Emperor of the Western half Must report directly to Diocletian Works until Diocletian becomes ill and retires Leads to a power struggle

Diocletian’s Reforms:

Diocletian’s Reforms Made civil service report directly to him Doubled the size of the army and trained a new cavalry Build new forts and roads for frontier defense Put limits on prices and wages People not allowed to change jobs Later applied to children and grandchildren

Constantine:

Constantine Wins control in 312 Reunites the Empire into a single state Built new capital at Byzantium Renamed it Constantinople Will govern the entire Roman Empire from the East

Reasons for moving the Capital:

Reasons for moving the Capital More Christian city Closer to the trade routes and major trade cities More secure from attack

Constantine’s Reforms:

Constantine’s Reforms Made Christianity an official religion of tolerance within the Empire Edict of Milan Artisans and farmers not allowed to mover from their current location

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