Decline of the Republic and the Rise of

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Decline of the Republic and the Rise of the Empire:

Decline of the Republic and the Rise of the Empire

Economic Troubles for the Republic:

Economic Troubles for the Republic Gap between rich and poor widens latifundia 1/3 of the population were slaves Many small land owners forced to sell their land to wealthy patricians

Gracchus Brothers:

Gracchus Brothers Tiberius and Gaius Served as Tribunes Represented the plebeians Called for limiting the size of the latifundia and giving land to the poor Senators felt threatened by their power and did not want land reform Both were murdered by the Senate

Military Upheaval:

Military Upheaval Generals begin seizing power for themselves Soldiers now become loyal to their generals rather than to Rome Generals promised soldiers wealth, further winning their loyalty

Civil Wars:

Civil Wars Wars between generals and their independent armies break out No clear central rule; or even rule by the Senate for 40 years

First Triumvirate:

First Triumvirate Julius Caesar Elected consul Young popular general Pompey Popular older general Angry with Senate for refusing land grants to his soldiers Crassus Wealthy general Ruled Rome together for 10 years Had sworn to rule equally Crassus dies early into their rule

Rift in the Triumvirate:

Rift in the Triumvirate Caesar grows in popularity thanks to wins in Gaul Pompey becomes nervous over Caesar’s increased popularity Allies with the Senate Senate tells Caesar to disband his army Caesar refuses to listen to the Senate

Caesar marches into Rome:

Caesar marches into Rome Caesar and his very loyal army marched to take Rome in january 49 BCE Pompey and his troops flee to the East Caesar’s armies defeat Pompey in several battles (Greece, Asia, Spain and Egypt)

Caesar takes ultimate power:

Caesar takes ultimate power Returns to Rome in 46 BCE Fully supported by the military and the people Senate names Caesar dictator In 44 BCE, this title was changed to Dictator for Life

Caesar’s Reforms:

Caesar’s Reforms Granted Roman citizenship to the people in the provinces Expanded the size of the Senate, filling it with loyal supporters Created jobs for the poor by sponsoring building projects Allowed people to move to new colonies and receive free land Increased the pay for soldiers New calendar Accomplished all this in ONLY 2 YEARS!

Beware the Ides of March:

Beware the Ides of March Senate worried of Caesar’s increasing power March 15, 44 BCE, they murdered him inside of the Senate Was stabbed 23 times Marcus Brutus (one of Caesar’s good friends) and Gaius Cassius plotted the assassination “Et tu, Brute?”

Second Triumvirate:

Second Triumvirate Octavian Caesar’s grandnephew and adopted son Mark Antony Marcus Lepidus Kill Caesar’s assassins and assume control Will rule for 10 years

Rift in the Second Triumvirate:

Rift in the Second Triumvirate Marcus Lepidus forced to retire Mark Antony goes to Egypt Falls in love with Cleopatra Octavian fears Mark Antony and Cleopatra plotting against him May want to rule Rome from Egypt

War in Egypt leads to Octavian’s solo rule of Rome:

War in Egypt leads to Octavian’s solo rule of Rome Octavian declares war on Egypt and brings his armies to Alexandria Major naval battle at Actium Octavian wins Mark Antony and Cleopatra commit suicide Senate gives Octavian title of Augustus Known as the imperator (commander-in-chief of the Roman armies)

Pax Romana:

Pax Romana Means “Roman Peace” Reorganized the army Encouraged former soldiers to settle in the provinces Coined money Increased trade Granted more citizenship Created a civil service Jobs open to those with talent regardless of class Paid for service New complete census taken


Agriculture 90% of people engaged in farming Able to trade products efficiently on the vast Roman roadways

Roman Religion:

Roman Religion Lares —guardian spirits of each family Copied the gods and goddesses of the ancient Greeks Required by law to worship gods publicly and privately


Slavery Captured in war Could be born into slavery Bought and sold Hard labor in the fields Gladiators

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