Chapter 27

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Chapter 27 : 

Chapter 27 Tradition and Change in East Asia

Focus of the Chapter : 

Focus of the Chapter The Ming and Qing (Manchu) Dynasty did much to preserve the essence of China’s “Middle Kingdom” personality and its avoidance of the rest of the world. Japan quickly gained global connections via the Tokugawa shogunate.

Technical Vocabulary : 

Technical Vocabulary Manchu Vassal state (Tributary state) eunuch

The Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) : 

The Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) Ming (“Brilliant”) dynasty comes to power after Mongol Yuan dynasty driven out --Centralized government control --Rebuilt and repaired the Great Wall --Restored civil service examinations

Ming Foreign Policy : 

Ming Foreign Policy Used traveling officials called Mandarins and large number of eunuchs to maintain control Emperor Yongle (r. 1403-1424) experiments with sea expeditions, moves capital north to Beijing to deter Mongol attacks

Ming China, 1368-1644 : 

Ming China, 1368-1644

The Great Wall : 

The Great Wall Rebuilt under Ming rule, 15th-16th centuries 1,550 miles, 33-49 feet high Guard towers Room for housing soldiers

Great Wall of China : 

Great Wall of China Was built to serve as a physical/visible boundary between civilized China and the uncivilized rest of the world Built to make Shih Huang Ti (Qin Dynasty) famous Cannot be seen from Space Was not built as a defense boundary TRUTHS FALLACIES

The Great Wall of China : 

The Great Wall of China

Eradicating the Mongol Past : 

Eradicating the Mongol Past Ming emperors encourage abandonment of Mongol names, dress Support study of Confucian classics

Ming Decline : 

Ming Decline 16th century maritime pirates harm coastal trade Navy, government unable to respond effectively Emperors secluded in Forbidden City, palace compound in Beijing

Ming Collapse : 

Ming Collapse Famine, peasant rebellions in early 17th century Rebels take Beijing in 1644 Manchu fighters enter from the north and retake city Manchus refuse to allow reestablishment of Ming dynasty Establish Qing (“Pure”) Dynasty --Commonly known as the Manchu Dynasty

The Qing empire, 1644-1911 : 

The Qing empire, 1644-1911

The Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) : 

The Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) Manchus originally pastoral nomads, north of Great Wall Establishes control over Korea, Mongolia Manchus forbid intermarriage, study of Manchu language by Chinese, force Manchu hairstyles as sign of loyalty

Manchu Hairstyle : 

Manchu Hairstyle Manchu adult men shaved all the hair off the front head, only leaving the hair on the top and at the back of the head, plaiting it into a tail hanging behind Mainly for the convenience of riding on a horse and hunting animals in the forest in mountainous area Manchus thought the pigtail is where the true soul inhabits, regarding it as the essence of life

Emperor Kangxi (r. 1661-1722) : 

Emperor Kangxi (r. 1661-1722) Confucian scholar, poet Military conquests: Taiwan, Tibet, central Asia His grandson Emperor Qianlong (r. 1736-1795) expands territory Vietnam, Burma, and Nepal made vassal states of China

The “Son of Heaven” : 

The “Son of Heaven” Ming and Qing Emperors considered quasi-divine Hundreds of concubines, thousands of eunuch servants Clothing designs, name characters forbidden to rest of population

The Scholar-Bureaucrats : 

The Scholar-Bureaucrats Ran government on a day-to-day basis Graduates from intense civil service examinations Open only to men Studied Confucian classics, calligraphy, poetry, essay writing, history, literature

The Civil Service Examinations : 

The Civil Service Examinations District, provincial, and metropolitan levels Only 300 allowed to pass at highest level Multiple attempts common Students expected to bring bedding, chamber pots for three-day uninterrupted examinations Students searched for printed materials before entering private cells

Examination System and Society : 

Examination System and Society Ferocious competition Qing dynasty: 1 million degree holders compete for 20,000 government positions Remainder turn to teaching, tutoring positions Some corruption, cheating Advantage for wealthy classes: hiring private tutors, etc. But open to all, tremendous opportunity for social mobility

The Patriarchal Family : 

The Patriarchal Family Filial piety understood as duty of child to parent; individual to emperor Eldest son favored

Gender Relations : 

Gender Relations Males receive preferential status Economic factor: girls join husband’s family Infanticide common Widows strongly encouraged not to remarry Chaste widows honored with ceremonial arches Men control divorce Footbinding on the rise

Woman with Bound Feet : 

Woman with Bound Feet

Population Growth and Economic Development : 

Population Growth and Economic Development Only 11% of China arable Intense, garden-style agriculture necessary American food crops introduced in 17th century Maize, sweet potatoes, peanuts Rebellion and war reduce population in 17th century Offset by pop. increase due to American crops

Chinese Population Growth : 

Chinese Population Growth

Foreign Trade : 

Foreign Trade Export silk, porcelain, tea, lacquerware Import relatively little Spices, animal skins, woolen textiles Paid for exports with silver bullion from Americas Do not actively seek imports from other places outside of Southeast Asia

Trade in Southeast Asia : 

Trade in Southeast Asia Chinese merchants continue to be active in southeast Asia, esp. Manila Extensive dealings with Dutch VOC

Government and Technology : 

Government and Technology During Tang and Song dynasties (7th-13th centuries), China a world leader in technology Stagnates during Ming and Qing dynasties European cannons purchased, based on early Chinese invention of gunpowder Government suppressed technological advancement, fearing social instability would result

Classes in Chinese Society : 

Classes in Chinese Society Privileged Classes Scholar-bureaucrats, gentry Distinctive clothing with ranks Immunity from some legal proceedings, taxes, labor service Working classes Peasants, artisans/workers, merchants Confucian doctrine gives greatest status to peasants Merchant activity not actively supported Lower classes Military, beggars, slaves

Neo-Confucianism : 

Neo-Confucianism Version of Confucian thought promoted by Zhu Xi (1130-1200 CE) Confucian morality with Buddhist logic Education at various levels promoted Development of popular novels as well

Christianity in China : 

Christianity in China Nestorian, Roman Catholic Christians had presence in China Disappeared with plague and social chaos of 14th century Jesuits return (1552-1610), attempt to convert Ming Emperor Wanli Mastered Chinese before first visit in 1601 Brought western mechanical technology Prisms, harpsichords, clocks

Confucianism and Christianity : 

Confucianism and Christianity Argued that Christianity was consistent with Confucianism Differences due to Neo-Confucian distortions Few converts in China Approx. 200,000 mid 18th century, about 0.08 percent of population Christian absolutism difficult for Chinese to accept Franciscans and Dominicans convince Pope that Jesuits compromising Christianity with Chinese traditions (e.g. ancestor worship) Emperor Kangxi bans Christian preaching in China

The Unification of Japan : 

The Unification of Japan Shoguns rule Japan, 12th-16th centuries Large landholders with private armies Emperor merely a figurehead Constant civil war Tokugawa Ieyasu (r. 1600-1616) establishes military government Establishes Tokugawa dynasty (1600-1867)

Tokugawa Japan, 1600-1867 : 

Tokugawa Japan, 1600-1867

Control of Daimyo (“Great Names”) : 

Control of Daimyo (“Great Names”) Approximately 260 powerful territorial lords Independent militaries, judiciaries, schools, foreign relations, etc. From capital Edo (Tokyo), shogun requires “alternate attendance”: daimyo forced to spend every other year at court Controlled marriage, socializing of daimyo families Beginning 1630s, shoguns restrict foreign relations Travel, import of books forbidden Policy strictly maintained for 200 years

Economic Growth in Japan : 

Economic Growth in Japan End of civil conflict contributes to prosperity New crop strains, irrigation systems improve agricultural production Yet population growth moderate Contraception, late marriage, abortion Infanticide: “thinning out the rice shoots”

Population Growth : 

Population Growth

Social Change : 

Social Change End of civil disturbances create massive unemployment of Daimyo, Samurai warriors Encouraged to join bureaucracy, scholarship Many declined to poverty Urban wealthy classes develop from trade activity

Neo-Confucianism in Japan : 

Neo-Confucianism in Japan Chinese cultural influence extends through Tokugawa period Chinese language essential to curriculum Zhu Xi and Neo-Confucianism remains popular “Native Learning” also popular in 18th century Folk traditions, Shinto

Floating Worlds (ukiyo) : 

Floating Worlds (ukiyo) Urban culture expressed in entertainment, pleasure industries Marked contrast to bushido ethic of Stoicism Ihara Saikaku (1642-1693), The Life of a Man Who Lived for Love Kabuki theatre, men playing women’s roles Bunraku puppet theatre

Christianity in Japan : 

Christianity in Japan Jesuit Francis Xavier in Japan, 1549 Remarkable success among daimyo Daimyo also hoping to establish trade relations with Europeans Government backlash Fear of foreign intrusion Confucians, Buddhists resent Christian absolutism Anti-Christian campaign 1587-1639 restricts Christianity, executes staunch Christians Sometimes by crucifixion

Persecution of Catholics : 

Persecution of Catholics

Dutch Learning : 

Dutch Learning Dutch presence at Nagasaki principal route for Japanese understanding of the world Before ban on foreign books lifted (1720), Japanese scholars study Dutch to approach European science, medicine, art

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