The Jefferson Era

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The Jefferson Era : 

The Jefferson Era Chapter 9

Impact Today : 

Impact Today While the two main parties have changed, each still works to win votes and gain power. If the people vote to change the party in power, the newly elected representatives take office peacefully and the government continues.

Election of 1800 : 

Election of 1800 Federalists ran President Adams and Charles Pinckney Republicans again ran Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr Campaigning No public speeches Wrote letters to be published in the newspapers

Election Tie : 

Election Tie At Electoral College vote, Jefferson and Burr each got 73 votes House of Representatives voted to break the tie Took 36 ballots Added the 12th Amendment to make sure a tie between President and Vice President never happened again.

Washington, DC : 

Washington, DC Became the official capital of the country in 1800 Only two official buildings “President’s Mansion” Uncompleted Capitol building

Jefferson’s Inauguration : 

Jefferson’s Inauguration President Adams did not attend Talked about the two parties working together in his speech Laissez-faire government “let the people do as they choose” A government that limits its power over the people.

Jefferson’s policies : 

Jefferson’s policies Supported farmers Believed people would protect the nation if they owned land Favored expanding westward Wanted a smaller federal government Wanted to reduce the size of the army

Jefferson’s Cabinet : 

Jefferson’s Cabinet Republicans that agreed with Jefferson’s ideas Secretary of State—James Madison Secretary of Treasury—Albert Gallatin

Immigration : 

Immigration Allowed the Alien and Sedition acts to expire Lowered the number of years a person had to be in the country to apply for citizenship to five years Both changes were very popular with the people

Reduced the Debt : 

Reduced the Debt Cut military cost by shrinking the military Cut 1/3 of the army Cut 18 ships out of the navy (only 7 left) Removed all the taxes Only CUSTOM DUTIES (taxes on imports) and taxes on the sale of land would remain

Reduced the Government : 

Reduced the Government Only a few hundred workers Only three main jobs Delivering the mail Collecting the custom duties Conducting the census every 10 years These ideas were very unpopular with the Federalists

Judiciary Act of 1801 : 

Judiciary Act of 1801 Congress approved increasing the number of federal judges President Adams appointed 67 Federalist judges on the last night of his term Wanted to stop Jefferson from being able to pick these judges.

Jefferson stopped the new judge appointments : 

Jefferson stopped the new judge appointments Some of the commissions were not delivered by Jefferson’s inauguration date Jefferson ordered Madison to stop those papers from being delivered Jefferson then repealed the Judiciary Act of 1801 Cancelled out all 67 new judges

Marbury v. Madison : 

Marbury v. Madison William Marbury did not receive his judge commission in time Claimed the Supreme Court had the power to give him the job Took his case directly to the Supreme Court Chief Justice Marshall denied his claim Created the concept of JUDICIAL REVIEW in the opinion he wrote explaining why the Court voted Marbury down

Judicial Review : 

Judicial Review The Constitution is the supreme law of the land. When there is a conflict between the Constitution and any other law, the Constitution must be followed. The judicial branch has the duty to uphold the Constitution. This includes the power to INTERPRET the Constitution

Results of Marbury v. Madison : 

Results of Marbury v. Madison The judges who received their commissions on time got their jobs Marbury and the judges who did not get their paperwork in time did not get jobs Supreme Court now had power to be the only government branch that can repeal or veto laws once they are signed. Few countries give their courts this much power

DO NOW : 

DO NOW Pg. 281 #2 and #3

Westward Expansion : 

Westward Expansion Settlers moved into Tennessee, Kentucky and the Northwest Territory (land close to the Mississippi River) Traveled in Conestoga wagons Brought rifles and axes

Settlements and Spain : 

Settlements and Spain Spain owned the Louisiana Territory all the land west of the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains Allowed American settlers to use the Mississippi River and trade at New Orleans

Changes to settlements : 

Changes to settlements 1802—Spain made a secret deal that gave the Louisiana Territory to France Deal was made with Napoleon Jefferson concerned about France’s plans Sent David Livingston to France to offer $10 million for New Orleans and Florida

France sold Louisiana : 

France sold Louisiana France Had lost Santo Domingo in the Caribbean No longer wanted Louisiana Needed money to fight war against Britain US bought the entire territory for $15 million

Jefferson worried : 

Jefferson worried Was unsure if the Constitution allowed the President to purchase land Asked the Senate for approval Gave it in October 1803 US doubled in size

Exploration : 

Exploration Jefferson wanted the land studied for science Congress wanted to learn of its COMMERCIAL (business) value Sent out Lewis and Clark Collected information Inspired others to travel rap

Trouble : 

Trouble Federalists feared states made from the Louisiana Purchase would be Republican Wanted to SECEDE (leave) the US Wanted to create the “Northern Confederacy” from New England states

More Trouble : 

More Trouble “Northern Confederacy” needed New York too Supported Aaron Burr in his run to be Governor of New York Alexander Hamilton was afraid Burr would help New York secede if he was elected

Hamilton-Burr Duel : 

Hamilton-Burr Duel Hamilton accused Burr of treason Burr lost the Governor election Blamed Hamilton for his loss Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel July 1804 in Weehawken, NJ Hamilton swore he would not fire Burr did shoot and hit Hamilton Hamilton died of his injuries the next day Burr fled to avoid arrest VideoClip

International Trade : 

International Trade 1000 American ships traded around the world Barbary Pirates From North African countries like Tripoli Attacked trade ships in the Mediterranean Demanded TRIBUTE (protection money)

War with Tripoli : 

War with Tripoli Tripoli demanded more tribute President Jefferson refused Tripoli attacked the American flag Seen as Act of War Jefferson sent American ships to blockade Tripoli Not powerful enough to fight the pirates Tripoli took the crew of the Philadelphia prisoner Negotiated peace Tripoli won’t demand tribute US paid $60,000 ransom

Election of 1804 : 

Election of 1804 Jefferson ran for reelection Charles Pinckney ran for the Federalists Jefferson easily won

More Trouble at Sea : 

More Trouble at Sea Britain and France at war in 1803 US had NEUTRAL RIGHTS Can sail the seas without taking sides By 1805, both are mad US is neutral France and Britain began to seize US ships Britain started IMPRESSMENT again Claimed they were only taking British deserters Britain attacked the Chesapeake

Embargo Act : 

Embargo Act December 1807 Banned imports and exports to all foreign countries Destroyed American trade Did not hurt Britain Just traded with other countries

Nonintercourse Act : 

Nonintercourse Act Got rid of the Embargo Act No trade with Britain, France or any of their colonies Also very unpopular

Election of 1808 : 

Election of 1808 Jefferson did not run for a third term Republicans ran James Madison Federalist ran Charles Pinckney Madison won

New Trade Rules : 

New Trade Rules Congress agreed to trade only with Britain or France Whoever made better trade deal first France promised to treat American ships better US began to trade with France France lied in the deal and started to attack American ships again

Frontier Problems : 

Frontier Problems Ohio became a state in 1803 Settlers continued to move west Had many conflicts with Native Americans Tecumseh, Shawnee chief, made a Native American alliance Feared the Native Americans would ally with Britain and start attacking settlers again

Battle of Tippecanoe : 

Battle of Tippecanoe General William Henry Harrison attacked the Native American alliance Attack came while Tecumseh was away Big victory for the US Tecumseh now allied with the British to begin fighting Americans

War Hawks : 

War Hawks Group of young Republicans Wanted war with Britain Led by Henry Clay and John Calhoun Got Congress to increase military spending

Slide 45: 

Draw the Timeline below List key events in the nation’s effort to remain neutral in the war between France and Britain 1805 June 1807 Dec. 1807 1809

War of 1812 : 

War of 1812 Congress declared war in June Tried to attack Canada Failed in two major attacks Big American victory on Lake Erie Commander Oliver Perry in charge More battles into Canada led to some victory Killed Tecumseh Burned the parliament buildings in York

American Navy : 

American Navy Had been downsized to cut costs Still won many battles Many privateers also helped

British Offensive : 

British Offensive Spring of 1814, Britain had defeated France Now began greater attack on US August 24, 1814—Britain attacked Washington, DC and burned the buildings A thunderstorm put out the fires Next tried to take Baltimore Cannon fire from Fort McHenry saved the city Francis Scott Key wrote The Star-Spangled Banner about this battle. Battle of Lake Champlain Americans stop British attack

End of War : 

End of War Britain decided the war was too expensive Would not gain much Treaty of Ghent December 1814 in Belgium Puts American-Britain relations back to exactly before the war No one got or lost anything

Battle of New Orleans : 

Battle of New Orleans Happened after the Treaty was signed, but before the news got back to the US Andrew Jackson defeated a huge British force Makes Jackson a popular hero VideoClip

Hartford Convention : 

Hartford Convention More Federalist talk of secession News of the Battle of New Orleans and the Treaty of Ghent stopped their plans Federalists now very unpopular in the eyes of the people War Hawk Republicans, however, push for stronger federal government

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