Chapter 24

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Chapter 24 : 

Chapter 24 The Transformation of Europe

The Protestant Reformation : 

The Protestant Reformation Martin Luther attacks Roman Catholic church practices (1517) Indulgences Writes Ninety-Five Theses rapidly reproduced with new printing technology

Martin Luther vs Johann Eck : 

Martin Luther vs Johann Eck Debate on the topic of indulgences Held in 1519 in Leipzig Eck—priest and professor of theology Eck was declared the winner officially, however Luther’s ideas continued to gain support and spread

Luther is Excommunicated : 

Luther is Excommunicated Pope tells Charles V (Holy Roman Emperor) to put Luther on trial for heresy Meeting held at Worms in 1521 Luther told to take back his statements “I am bound by the Scriptures I have quoted and my conscience is captive to the World of God. I cannot and I will not retract anything, since it is neither safe nor right to go against conscience. I cannot do otherwise, here I stand, may God help me. Amen.”

Luther is guilty : 

Luther is guilty Charles V issues the Edict of Worms Luther is an outlaw and a heretic No one is allowed give Luther food or shelter All of Luther’s books should be burned Luther is kidnapped (prearranged and by a friend) Held prisoner in the Wartburg Castle Translated the Bible into German while there

The Demand for Reform : 

The Demand for Reform Luther’s expanded critique Closure of monasteries Translations of Bible into vernacular End of priestly authority, especially the Pope Return to biblical text for authority German princes interested Opportunities for assertion of local control Support for reform spreads throughout Germany

Peace of Augsburg : 

Peace of Augsburg Charles V leads southern German princes against those in the north Fighting goes on for nearly Thirty Years Decide to end with an agreement that each prince will determine the religion of his state

Peasant Revolt : 

Peasant Revolt Many peasants attempt to apply Luther’s Church reforms to society Angry peasants raid monasteries, stealing and burning them down Luther upset by this and asks German princes to show mercy on the peasants German armies crush the rebellion Kill 100,000 peasants

Reform outside Germany : 

Reform outside Germany Switzerland, Low Countries follow Germany Scotland, Netherlands, Hungary also experience reform movements England: King Henry VIII has conflict with Pope over requested divorce England forms Anglican Church by 1560

Henry VIII of England : 

Henry VIII of England Was loyal to the Pope; wrote an attack against Luther Worried about his throne Had only a single daughter (Mary) with his wife Catherine of Aragon In 1527, wants a divorce from Catherine so he can marry a younger queen and get a male heir

Annulment : 

Annulment Catholic Church does not allow divorce Henry asks for an annulment Pope will only annul a marriage if it can be proven it was never legal in the first place Pope refuse’s the annulment Does not want to anger Catherine’s nephew, Charles V

Reformation Parliament : 

Reformation Parliament 1529—Henry calls a special meeting of Parliament where they pass a set of laws ending the Pope’s power in England 1533—Henry secretly marries Anne Boleyn Parliament legalizes Henry’s divorce from Catherine 1534—Act of Supremacy Makes the King the head of England’s Church, rather than the Pope

More Scandal : 

More Scandal Thomas More speaks out against Henry and the Act of Supremacy Is arrested and held prisoner in the Tower of London Found guilty of high treason and executed Marriage to Anne results in a single daughter (Elizabeth) Anne is held prisoner in Tower of London, found guilty of treason, and beheaded

Finally, a son : 

Finally, a son Wife #3 is Jane Seymour Has son Edward Dies two weeks after giving birth Henry marries 3 more times (divorced, beheaded, survives after Henry’s death) No more children

Henry dies in 1547 : 

Henry dies in 1547 Edward becomes king at age of 9 Controlled by Protestant advisors Made lots of Protestant reforms and laws Edward was very sickly and dies at age 15 Mary comes to power in 1553 Vows to make England a Catholic state under the control of the Pope Persecutes Protestants (lots of executions) Dies in 1558

Elizabeth : 

Elizabeth Takes throne after Mary’s death Is Protestant Creates the Anglican Church Only official church in England Tries to please both Protestants and Catholics with this new Church Priests can marry; sermons in English Followed many of the old rituals of Catholics

Calvinism : 

Calvinism Created by John Calvin Believed in predetermination God has already decided who will go to Heaven Bible is sole source of authority and individuals can read and interpret it themselves Council of elders govern each Church

The Catholic Reformation (Counter Reformation) : 

The Catholic Reformation (Counter Reformation) Roman Catholic church reacts Refining doctrine, missionary activities to Protestants, attempt to renew spiritual activity Council of Trent--periodic meetings to discuss reform Society of Jesus (Jesuits) founded by St. Ignatius Loyola Rigorous religious and secular education Effective missionaries (win back Catholics)

Witch Hunts : 

Witch Hunts Most prominent in regions of tension between Catholics and Protestants Late 15th century development in belief in Devil and human assistants 16th-17th centuries approximately 110,000 people put on trial, some 60,000 put to death Vast majority females, usually single, widowed Held accountable for crop failures, miscarriages, etc. New England: 234 witches tried, 36 hung

Religious Wars : 

Religious Wars Protestants and Roman Catholics fight in France (1562-1598) 1588 Philip II of Spain attacks England to force return to Catholicism English destroy Spanish ships by sending flaming unmanned ships into the fleet Netherlands rebel against Spain, gain independence by 1610

The Thirty Years’ War (1618-1645) : 

The Thirty Years’ War (1618-1645) Holy Roman emperor attempts to force Bohemians (Czech) to return to Roman Catholic Church All of Europe becomes involved in conflict Principal battleground: Germany Political, economic issues involved Approximately one-third of German population destroyed

The Consolidation of Sovereign States : 

The Consolidation of Sovereign States Emperor Charles V (Spain) attempts to revive Holy Roman Empire as strong center of Europe Through marriage, political alliances Ultimately fails Protestant Reformation provides cover for local princes to assert greater independence Foreign opposition from France, Ottoman Empire Charles V abdicates to monastery in Spain Unlike China, India, Ottoman Empire, Europe does not develop as single empire, rather individual states

Sixteenth-century Europe : 

Sixteenth-century Europe

The New Monarchs : 

The New Monarchs Italy well-developed as economic power through trade, manufacturing, finance Yet England, France, and Spain surge ahead in 16th century thanks to innovative new tax revenues England: Henry VIII Fines and fees for royal services; confiscated monastic holdings France: Louis XI, Francis I New taxes on sales, salt trade

The Spanish Inquisition : 

The Spanish Inquisition Founded by Fernando and Isabel in 1478 Original task: search for secret Christian practitioners of Judaism or Islam, later search for Protestants Spread to Spanish holdings outside Iberian peninsula in western hemisphere Imprisonment, executions Intimidated nobles who might have considered Protestantism Archbishop of Toledo imprisoned 1559-1576

Constitutional States : 

Constitutional States England and Netherlands develop institutions of popular representation England: constitutional monarchy Netherlands: republic English Civil War, 1642-1649 Begins with opposition to royal taxes Religious elements: Anglican church favors complex ritual, complex church hierarchy, opposed by Calvinist Puritans King Charles I and parliamentary armies clash King loses, is beheaded in 1649

The Glorious Revolution : 

The Glorious Revolution Puritans take over, becomes a dictatorship Monarchy restored in 1660, fighting resumes Resolution with bloodless coup called Glorious Revolution King James II deposed, daughter Mary and husband William of Orange take throne Shared governance between crown and parliament

The Dutch Republic : 

The Dutch Republic King Philip II of Spain attempts to suppress Calvinists in Netherlands, 1566 Large-scale rebellion follows, by 1581 Netherlands declares independence Based on a representative parliamentary system

Absolute Monarchies : 

Absolute Monarchies Theory of Divine Right of Kings French absolutism designed by Cardinal Richelieu (under King Louis XIII, 1624-1642) Destroyed castles of nobles, crushed aristocratic conspiracies Built bureaucracy to bolster royal power base Ruthlessly attacked Calvinists

Louis XIV (The “Sun King,” 1643-1715) : 

Louis XIV (The “Sun King,” 1643-1715) L’état, c’est moi: “The State – that’s me.” Magnificent palace at Versailles, 1670s, becomes his court Largest building in Europe 1,400 fountains 25,000 fully grown trees transplanted Power centered in court, important nobles pressured to maintain presence

Absolutism in Russia: The Romanov Dynasty (1613-1917) : 

Absolutism in Russia: The Romanov Dynasty (1613-1917) Peter the Great Worked to modernize Russia on western European model Developed modern Russian army, reformed Russian government bureaucracy, demanded changes in fashion: beards forbidden Built new capital at St. Petersburg Catherine the Great Huge military expansion Partitions of Poland, 1772-1797 Social reforms at first, but end with peasant rebellion

The European States System : 

The European States System No imperial authority to mediate regional disputes Peace of Westphalia (1648) after Thirty Years’ War European states to be recognized as sovereign and equal Religious, other domestic affairs protected Warfare continues: opposition to French expansion, Seven Years’ War Balance of Power tenuous Innovations in military technology proceed rapidly

Europe after the Peace of Westphalia, 1648. : 

Europe after the Peace of Westphalia, 1648.

Population Growth and Urbanization : 

Population Growth and Urbanization Rapidly growing population due to Columbian Exchange Improved nutrition Role of the potato Replaces bread as staple of diet Better nutrition reduces susceptibility to plague Epidemic disease becomes insignificant for overall population decline by mid-17th century

Population Growth in Europe : 

Population Growth in Europe

Urbanization : 


Early Capitalism : 

Early Capitalism Private parties offer goods and services on a free market Own means of production Private initiative, not government control Supply and demand determines prices Banks, stock exchanges develop in early modern period Joint-Stock Companies (English East India Company, VOC) Relationship with empire-building Medieval guilds discarded in favor of “putting-out” system

Impact of Capitalism on the Social Order : 

Impact of Capitalism on the Social Order Rural life Improved access to manufactured goods Increasing opportunities in urban centers begins depletion of the rural population Inefficient institution of serfdom abandoned in western Europe, retained in Russia until 19th century Nuclear families replace extended families Gender changes as women enter income-earning work force

Capitalism and Morality : 

Capitalism and Morality Adam Smith argued that capitalism would ultimately improve society as a whole But major social change increases poverty in some sectors Rise in crime Witch-hunting a possible consequence of capitalist tensions and gender roles

The Copernican Universe : 

The Copernican Universe Reconception of the Universe Reliance on 2nd-century Greek scholar Ptolemy Motionless earth inside nine concentric spheres Christians understand heaven as last sphere Difficulty reconciling model with observed planetary movement 1543 Nicholas Copernicus of Poland breaks theory Notion of moving Earth challenges Christian doctrine

The Scientific Revolution : 

The Scientific Revolution Johannes Kepler (Germany, 1571-1630) and Galileo Galilei (Italy, 1564-1642) reinforce Copernican model Isaac Newton (1642-1727) revolutionizes study of physics Rigorous challenge to church doctrines

The Enlightenment : 

The Enlightenment Trend away from Aristotelian philosophy and Church doctrine in favor of rational thought and scientific analysis John Locke (England, 1632-1704), Baron de Montesquieu (France, 1689-1755) attempt to discover natural laws of politics Center of Enlightenment: France, philosophes Voltaire (1694-1778), caustic attacks on Roman Catholic church

The Theory of Progress : 

The Theory of Progress Assumption that Enlightenment thought would ultimately lead to human harmony, material wealth Decline in authority of traditional organized religion

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