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Focus of Chapter : 

Focus of Chapter A complex series of motives ranging from greed and adventure to religious zeal coupled with advances in technology led to complete world exploration by Western Europeans in the period 1450-1750.

Technical Vocabulary : 

Technical Vocabulary Columbian Exchange Volta do mar Joint-stock company Hegemony

Motives for exploration : 

Motives for exploration Resource-poor Portugal searched for fresh resources The lure of direct trade without Muslim intermediaries Missionary efforts of European Christians New Testament urged Christians to spread the faith throughout the world

Technological Achievements : 

Technological Achievements Sternpost rudder and two types of sails enabled ships to advance against wind Navigational instruments Magnetic compass Astrolabe Knowledge of winds and currents enabled Europeans to travel reliably Trade winds north and south of the equator Regular monsoons in Indian Ocean basin The volta do mar

Dom Henrique and Dias : 

Dom Henrique and Dias

De Gama and Columbus : 

De Gama and Columbus

Magellan : 


The Portuguese : 

The Portuguese More than 50 trading posts between west Africa and east Asia Alfonso d’Alboquerque Seized control of the Indian Ocean Required ships to purchase safe-conduct passes Start to lose control of the seas by the late 16th century

The English and the Dutch : 

The English and the Dutch Established parallel posts in Asia English in India Dutch in South Africa and Indonesia Ships were faster, cheaper and more powerful than the Portuguese Created joint-stock companies to finance expansion 1600: The English East India Company 1602: The United East India Company (VOC)

Spain and the Philippines : 

Spain and the Philippines Begin conquest in 1565 Made Manila the Spanish capital Spanish and the Filipinos wage genocide against the Chinese living on the islands Christianity widely accepted

Competition : 

Competition Dutch kick the Portuguese out of southeast Asia English and French fight over control of tea and cotton from Ceylon English, French and Spanish all compete for control of the New World

The Seven Years’ War : 

The Seven Years’ War 1756-1763 In Europe: British and Prussia vs. France, Austria and Russia In India: British vs. France (each with local allies) In the Caribbean: Spanish and French vs. British In N.A.: British vs. French

British Hegemony : 

British Hegemony British are the ultimate winners of the Seven Years’ War Gain control of India, Canada and Florida Begins the path for British Empire Prussians also recognized for their strength

The Columbian Exchange : 

The Columbian Exchange Global diffusion of plants, food crops, animals, human populations and disease pathogens after Columbus Permanently altered the environment

Epidemic Diseases : 

Epidemic Diseases Smallpox, measles, diphtheria, whooping cough, influenza Smallpox kills 85-95% of people of Mexico 1500-1800, 100 million people outside of Europe die of diseases

New foods and animals : 

New foods and animals Wheat, horses, cattle, sheep, goats and chickens arrive in the New World Maize, potatoes, beans, tomatoes, peppers and peanuts go to Old World Leads to global population growth 425 million in 1500 900 million in 1800

Migration of Peoples : 

Migration of Peoples Enslavement of Africans Movement of Europeans to the Americas In the 19th century, movement of Europeans to South Africa, Australia and the Pacific Islands

Trade across the Pacific : 

Trade across the Pacific Manila-Mexico Bring luxury goods from Asia to the Spanish settlers in Mexico Ship Mexican silver back to China

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