A More Perfect Union

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A More Perfect Union : 

A More Perfect Union Chapter 7

Essential Points : 

Essential Points With independence came the task of developing state and national governments. The Constitution written in 1788 has been the fundamental law of the US for over 200 years and the model for other nations’ constitutions

Troubles for a New Nation : 

Troubles for a New Nation Britain keeps troops in North America Violation of the Treaty of Paris There is no formal government controlling all the colonies

Limited State Governments : 

Limited State Governments Second Continental Congress told the states to make governments in 1776 All had limited the power of the Governor Most had made bicameral legislatures BICAMERAL—Two houses LEGISLATURE—Group that makes laws

Limited voting rights : 

Limited voting rights Must be Male 21 Pay certain taxes Own certain amount of property

Republic : 

Republic A government in which the citizens elect representatives. Want a weak central government with most power in the hands of the states

Articles of Confederation : 

Articles of Confederation March 1781 Government is run entirely by Congress Each state has only one vote CAN: Conduct foreign affairs Maintain army Borrow and print money CANNOT: Regulate trade Draft army Impose taxes

Money Issues : 

Money Issues Congress must ask the individual states States can refuse to pay

Western Settlement : 

Western Settlement No way to make new states under the Articles of Confederation Thomas Jefferson’s plan When the population of a district reached the size of the smallest state, then the people could petition (ASK) Congress to make them a state.

Land Ordinance of 1785 : 

Land Ordinance of 1785 System to survey and sell land west of the Ohio River Townships would be 6 miles square Divided into 36 sections Divided into 640 acres Sold land for at least $1 an acre Leads to land speculation Buy land cheap and then sell it at a higher price

Northwest Ordinance of 1787 : 

Northwest Ordinance of 1787 Northwest Territory—land north of Ohio River and east of the Mississippi River Divided into 5 districts When a district reaches 60,000 in population, it can petition to be a state Districts MUST have: Freedom of religion Trial Jury NO SLAVERY!

Three Major Problems of the Confederation : 

Three Major Problems of the Confederation Money Paper money worthless Inflation War debt Owed soldiers money No taxation power Britain Troops remain near the Great Lakes Won’t let Americans travel to the West Indies Spain Won’t let American ships use the Mississippi River

Depression : 

Depression Farmers could not make good profits Can’t pay their state taxes State governments’ seized (took) their lands

Shay’s Rebellion : 

Shay’s Rebellion In Massachusetts Mob forces the closing of court so judges can rule to take the farmers’ land 1000 farmers led by Daniel Shay to seize the federal arsenal State militia ordered them to stop Ended up shooting at mob, killing 4

Concern from Shay’s Rebellion : 

Concern from Shay’s Rebellion States are worried they may not be able to stop violent acts

Slavery : 

Slavery By 1786, 11 states made it illegal to import new slaves Pennsylvania was first to free slaves CT, RI, NY, NJ follow Freedmen face a lot of prejudice The South’s plantation system totally dependent on slaves Tension grows as the North continued to free more slaves

Too many problems for the Articles : 

Too many problems for the Articles Foreign relations Economy Rebellion Slavery

Call for Change : 

Call for Change The Articles of Confederation were not working James Madison and Alexander Hamilton call a meeting to bring about change George Washington only agreed to a change after Shay’s Rebellion

Constitutional Convention : 

Constitutional Convention May 1787 in Philadelphia James Madison took a lot of notes “Father of the Constitution” as it is his basic idea

Convention Procedure : 

Convention Procedure George Washington served as president of the Convention Each state has only one vote Meetings are closed to the public

Biggest Argument : 

Biggest Argument Large states and small states argued over how their people would be represented in this new government 1790 Census Report

Virginia Plan : 

Virginia Plan Bicameral Congress Lower House elected by the people Upper House elected by the Lower House NUMBER OF MEMBERS IN CONGRESS BASED ON STATE POPULATION Chief Executive picked by the Congress Court System

New Jersey Plan : 

New Jersey Plan One house Congress ONE VOTE PER STATE Power to regulate trade and tax Weak, Multi-person executive office Elected by Congress

The Great Compromise : 

The Great Compromise Bicameral Congress House of Representatives Number of representatives based on states’ populations People will elect Senate Each state gets two votes State legislature will elect

3/5 Compromise : 

3/5 Compromise Argument against slaves counting toward a state’s population Decide slaves will each count as 3/5 of person

DO NOW!!! : 

DO NOW!!! Write a 30 second news clip OR an internet news blurb about the 3/5 Compromise. You are explaining this compromise to someone who knows nothing about what it is. You may need to include brief background information in order to accurately get your message across.

Slavery : 

Slavery All agreed not to talk about the issue until 1808

Bill of Rights? : 

Bill of Rights? George Mason proposed adding a bill of rights The idea was dropped at the time

Constitution sent to the states : 

Constitution sent to the states September 17,1787 9 out of the 13 needed to RATIFY (approve) it before it became law

British Connections : 

British Connections Parliament power over the king Congress power over the king English Bill of Rights American Bill of Rights

Federalism : 

Federalism Sharing of power between the federal government and state governments

Slide 36: 

FEDERAL government STATE GOVERNMENT Tax Regulate trade Control currency Raise army Declare war Pass laws “necessary and proper” Build roads Pass and enforce laws Regulate state trade Local governments Schools Welfare groups Tax Build roads

“Supreme Law of the Land” : 

“Supreme Law of the Land” No state law can go against the Constitution

Three Branches of Constitution : 

Three Branches of Constitution Legislative Branch (Congress) Makes the laws Executive Branch (President and Cabinet) Carries out the laws Judicial Branch (Supreme Court) Maintain/support the laws

“Government of the People” : 

“Government of the People” Citizens hold the voting power

Debate over Ratification : 

Debate over Ratification Rhode Island refuses to call a state convention to discuss the Constitution Two sides form Federalists—fight to get Constitution ratified Antifederalists—argue the Constitution takes away too many freedoms

Federalists : 

Federalists Supporters of the Constitution Washington and Franklin Madison, Hamilton, Jay all write essays in the newspapers explaining and defending the Constitution The Federalist Papers

Antifederalists : 

Antifederalists Feared the loss of power of the local governments Feared a special treatment for the wealthy Wanted a Bill of Rights

Steps Toward Ratification : 

Steps Toward Ratification December 7, 1787—Delaware meets and ratifies first June 21, 1788—New Hampshire becomes the 9th state to ratify

New York and Virginia had not ratified yet : 

(the two biggest states) Patrick Henry tries to stop Virginia from ratifying because of the missing Bill of Rights Virginia ratifies in June 1788 with a promise of a Bill of Rights to be included New York and Virginia had not ratified yet

The Last Three… : 

The Last Three… New York—July 1788 North Carolina—November 1789 May 1790—Rhode Island Celebrations are held in Boston, Philadelphia and New York

The Bill of Rights : 

The Bill of Rights Added in 1791 First 10 amendments to the Constitution Protects basic rights of citizens

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