A New Nation

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A New Nation : 

Chapter 8 A New Nation

Impact Today : 

Impact Today President Washington set many precedents (examples) that presidents still follow, including creating a Cabinet, directing foreign affairs and serving as chief legislator.

President Washington : 

President Washington Took the Oath of Office on April 30, 1789 Did not want to be President Wanted to retire Vice President was John Adams

Fear and Trust : 

Fear and Trust Most Americans FEARED the power of the President Most Americans TRUSTED Washington as their President

Decisions Affect the Future : 

Decisions Affect the Future Washington knew his decisions would affect how future Presidents led Constitution says President picks his Cabinet BUT do they report to the President or to Congress?

First Cabinet : 

First Cabinet Secretary of State Relations with other nations Secretary of Treasury Financial matters Secretary of War Nation’s Defense Attorney General Legal affairs Postmaster General Postal service

DO NOW!!! : 

DO NOW!!! Write a 5 sentence job description for each of the Cabinet positions. What should a person in each of these jobs know? What should a person in each of these jobs be good at doing? What kind of education or qualifications should each person have? Are there any special skills a person in one of these positions must have?

First Cabinet Members : 

First Cabinet Members Secretary of State THOMAS JEFFERSON Secretary of Treasury ALEXANDER HAMILTON Secretary of War HENRY KNOX Attorney General EDMUND RANDOLPH Postmaster General SAMUEL OSGOOD

Vice President Power : 

Vice President Power Senate must vote if the President is allowed to dismiss a Cabinet member without Senate approval Vice President Adams broke the 13-13 tie in favor of the President’s power

Judiciary Act of 1789 : 

Judiciary Act of 1789 Argument over creating a national court system or just state courts Created 13 District Courts and 3 Circuit Courts These courts can overrule state decisions

Supreme Court : 

Supreme Court John Jay nominated and approved as first Supreme Court Chief Justice

Bill of Rights : 

Bill of Rights Introduced in Congress by James Madison Congress approved 12 amendments, the states ratify 10

Growing National Debt : 

Growing National Debt Alexander Hamilton must fix the problem Proposed using taxes to pay off the whole debt Some money owed to foreign nations Some money owed to American citizens

Debt Anger : 

Debt Anger During the War, the government had sold bonds Many people sold their bonds to speculators for less than value Hamilton proposed all bonds paid off at full value Many angry the speculators would now get rich

More Debt Anger : 

More Debt Anger Since the North had all the manufacturing, they were owed more money South complained it would be paying taxes to make the North rich

The “D.C.” Deal : 

The “D.C.” Deal South agreed to Hamilton’s debt proposal when he worked to move the capital of the country to the South Old capitals had been NYC and Philadelphia Washington D.C. would be created in land between Maryland and Virginia

National Bank : 

National Bank Hamilton wanted a National Bank Madison and Jefferson argue this bank would only benefit the wealthy and was UNCONSTITUTIONAL Washington sided with Hamilton

Tariff : 

Tariff Hamilton wanted to support the growth of American manufacturing South against it as they had little manufacturing Was able to get smaller tariffs in place Provided 90% of the nation’s income

Taxes : 

Taxes Hamilton was able to get Congress to approve a number of taxes Whiskey tax

Anti-Hamilton : 

Anti-Hamilton Madison and Jefferson very much against Hamilton’s ideas Feared the government was growing too big and too powerful

DO NOW!! : 

DO NOW!! Pg. 262 #2 and #4

Troubles for the New Government : 

Troubles for the New Government Anger over taxes Fighting with Native Americans Tension with Great Britain, France and Spain

Whiskey Rebellion : 

Whiskey Rebellion New tax on Whiskey Farmers in western Pennsylvania angry about this tax Used whiskey to barter for other goods Federal officers sent to force the farmers to pay their taxes in July 1794 Violent mob erupts Washington orders more troops

Result of the Whiskey Rebellion : 

Result of the Whiskey Rebellion Washington declared that people must use the established peaceful means to change/challenge the government or the government will use necessary force to maintain order

Fighting with Indians : 

Fighting with Indians Indians don’t believe the Americans have any right to the land between the Appalachian Mountains and Mississippi River Ask Britain and Spain for help to fight the Americans

Peace with Indians? : 

Peace with Indians? More treaties between the US and the Native Americans were signed American settlers ignored the treaties Several battles take place British encourage the Indians to fight British begin to build a new fort in Ohio

Treaty of Greenville : 

Treaty of Greenville Indians agreed to give up all claims to land in Ohio

France and Britain go to War : 

France and Britain go to War 1793 South and Jefferson supported France May be help with Indian problems North and Hamilton supported Britain Want to keep trade going Washington wanted the US to stay neutral (not get involved)

Proclamation of Neutrality : 

Proclamation of Neutrality April 1793 No US citizen could fight in the war between France and Britain No French or British warships could come into American ports

Citizen Genet : 

Citizen Genet French ambassador Came to US to recruit volunteers to attack British ships Some Americans did serve on French ships Destroyed British ships and cargo

British Anger : 

British Anger Attacked American ships trading with France IMPRESSED American sailors (forced the sailors to serve on British warships)

Jay’s Treaty : 

Jay’s Treaty Britain withdrew all troops from American soil Paid for all damages to American ships Allowed some American trade in the Caribbean Sea US promised to pay back debts from before 1776

Jay’s Treaty is Narrowly Approved : 

Jay’s Treaty is Narrowly Approved Angry at no mention of impressments Angry at no attention to British interference with American trade

Pinckney’s Treaty : 

Pinckney’s Treaty With Spain in 1795 Americans could now use the Mississippi River and trade in the port of New Orleans

DO NOW!! : 

DO NOW!! Pg. 266 #2 and #4

Political Parties : 

Political Parties Washington warned against the creation of parties But he usually took one side Hamilton and Jefferson emerged as natural leaders of opposite parties

Federalists (as a party) : 

Federalists (as a party) Supported: Washington and Hamilton Strong federal government Britain Banking and shipping Think only honest, wealthy educated class should be in the government Strongest in the Northeast and on Southern plantations

Republicans (Democratic-Republicans) : 

Republicans (Democratic-Republicans) Supported: Jefferson and Madison Small government what would not infringe (take away) personal freedoms France Farming Think the “common man” should have a large say in the government Strongest among farmers and city workers

Implied Powers : 

Implied Powers Government can do certain things not specifically in the Constitution Constitution did not create a National Bank, but it give Congress the power to control money and regulate trade which a National Bank would help happen Jefferson was against implied powers

Election of 1796 : 

Election of 1796 First caucuses (meetings by political parties to nominate candidates) Federalists choose John Adams/Charles Pinckney Republicans choose Thomas Jefferson/Aaron Burr Result: President Adams and Vice President Jefferson

New Trouble with France : 

New Trouble with France France angered by Jay Treaty President Adams sent a delegation to Paris Met by three agents who demanded a bribe and a large loan to France Known as XYZ Affair Adams warned Congress to prepare for war

Undeclared War with France : 

Undeclared War with France 1798-1800 French and American Navy (created in April 1798) had several battles Reached peace agreement in September 1800

Fear of Immigrants : 

Fear of Immigrants Afraid of noncitizens that lived in US Alien Act (Alien = Immigrant) Allowed the President to imprison aliens or send those he considered dangerous out of the country Sedition Act Crime to speak, write or publish “false, scandalous and malicious” criticisms of the government

Protest of Alien and Sedition Acts : 

Protest of Alien and Sedition Acts Claimed they were unconstitutional Claimed states could nullify laws they found unconstitutional Huge fight in Congress

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