The Crusades

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The Crusades : 

The Crusades Clash of Religions

It all starts with the Pilgrimages… : 

It all starts with the Pilgrimages… Early as 200s, European Christians travel to Palestine Becomes more prominent after the Edict of Milan Continues peacefully after Muslim forces take control of Palestine in the 600s through the 1000s

The Holy Land : 

The Holy Land

Jerusalem : 

Jerusalem Important to Christians Major trade point Site of religious pilgrimages Important to Jews Site of original Jewish Kingdom City first built by the Jews Major religious significance Important to Muslims Mohammed originally had followers face Jerusalem to pray to show they were reaching out to the Judo-Christian God Major trade point

Muslims take over Jerusalem : 

Muslims take over Jerusalem Conquered by Caliph Umar in 638 insisted that the three faiths of Abraham coexist. refused to pray in the Church of the Holy Sepulcher when he was escorted around the city by the Greek Orthodox Patriarch. Had he done so, he explained, the Muslims would have wanted to build a mosque there to commemorate the first Islamic prayer in Jerusalem. The Jews like Muslim rulers over their Byzantine ruler. Christians had never allowed the Jews to reside permanently in the city Byzantines had left the Jewish Temple in ruins Had even begun to use the Temple Mount as a garbage dump. Umar was horrified to see this desecration. He helped clear it with his own hands, reconsecrated the platform and built a simple wooden mosque on the southern end, site of al-Aqsa Mosque today.

1071, Seljuk Turks seize control of the Holy Land : 

1071, Seljuk Turks seize control of the Holy Land Reports of Christians being tortured While they were staying for a few days in Latakia, they began to meet each day many people returning from Jerusalem. The returning parties told of the deaths of an uncounted number of their companions. They also shouted about and displayed their own recent and still bloody wounds. They bore witness publicly that no one could pass along that route because the whole land was occupied by a most ferocious tribe of Arabs who thirsted for human blood. The question before the pilgrims was what to do and where to turn. First of all, they quickly agreed in council to deny their own wishes and to put all hope in the Lord. They knew that, living or dying, they belonged to the Lord and so, with all their wits about them, they set out through the pagan territory toward the holy city. Annalist of Nieder-Altaich: The Great German Pilgrimage of 1064-65 Byzantine Emperor feels threatened and calls the Pope for help

1095 Pope Urban II calls for a Holy War : 

1095 Pope Urban II calls for a Holy War Meeting held at Clermont

The “Real” Reasons for the Crusades : 

The “Real” Reasons for the Crusades Growing tensions in Spain Personal prestige and power of Pope Urban II Possible control of all of Europe Possible “reunification” of the Christian Churches Religious fervor Pope promises indulgences for all fighters Appeal to travel and adventure Opportunity for kings to centralize power Younger sons have chance at glory and fame Rumors of Muslim riches

“Peasant” Crusade : 

“Peasant” Crusade Thousands follow Peter the Hermit No weapons, no shoes March through France and Germany Loot and pillage the Jewish settlements along the way Finally arrive at Constantinople Emperor not happy to see them Arrive in Asia Minor—promptly slaughtered

Slaughter of the Eastern Jews : 

Slaughter of the Eastern Jews But Emico and the rest of his band held a council and, after sunrise, attacked the Jews in the hall with arrows and lances. Breaking the bolts and doors, they killed the Jews, about seven hundred in number, who in vain resisted the force and attack of so many thousands. They killed the women, also, and with their swords pierced tender children of whatever age and sex. The Jews, seeing that their Christian enemies were attacking them and their children, and that they were sparing no age, likewise fell upon one another, brother, children, wives, and sisters, and thus they perished at each other's hands. Horrible to say, mothers cut the throats of nursing children with knives and stabbed others, preferring them to perish thus by their own hands rather than to be killed by the weapons of the uncircumcised. Albert of Aix and Ekkehard of Aura: Emico and the Slaughter of the Rhineland Jews

1096—First Crusade : 

1096—First Crusade Leaders often quarreled and were rude, supply lines weak, disease wracks the armies Muslims are not yet unified Crusaders capture Jerusalem in 1099 Slaughter almost all who lived there at the time Will hold region for 200 years Increased flow of trade into Europe

Set up Four Crusader States : 

Set up Four Crusader States Jerusalem Edessa Tripoli Antioch

1144—Second Crusade : 

1144—Second Crusade Turks recapture Edessa Crusades fail to win it back

1189—Third Crusade : 

1189—Third Crusade Turks recapture Jerusalem Led by Saladin the Great Crusaders led by Richard the Lion-Heart Win back some land, but can not retake Jerusalem Call a truce Christians guaranteed safe passage to visit Jerusalem

1202—Fourth Crusade : 

1202—Fourth Crusade Jealous Venetian merchants convince Crusaders to sack Constantinople Christians vs. Christians Split will now be definite and permanent Byzantine Empire never recovers from this loss

Story Time….Children’s Crusade : 

Story Time….Children’s Crusade

By 1291, Muslims control all of the Holy Land again : 

By 1291, Muslims control all of the Holy Land again

Results of the Crusades : 

Results of the Crusades Power of the Church and the Pope increases Muslims kicked out of Spain Minor increase in European-Muslim trade Deep rooted bitterness of Muslims against Christian Europeans Decline in relationships between Christian Europeans and the Jews and Muslims of Palestine

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