TweakedTangandSong

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Tang and Song DynastiesChapter 15 : 

Tang and Song DynastiesChapter 15 Shang Dynasty 1766 to 1122 B.C. Zhou Dynasty 1122 to 256 B.C.

Focus of Chapter : 

Focus of Chapter The cultural elements of the Tang and Song greatly influenced the development of Korea, Vietnam and Japan.

Technical Vocabulary : 

Technical Vocabulary Tributary state Centralized government Golden Age

Restoration of Centralized Imperial Rule : 

Restoration of Centralized Imperial Rule After the Han Dynasty, civil war for control Late 6th century, Yang Jian was able to reestablish centralized rule Yang succeeded by the Tang and then Song Dynasties

Agriculture : 

Agriculture

Agriculture: Fast-ripening rice : 

Agriculture: Fast-ripening rice Tang and Song armies ventured into Vietnam, and encountered fast-ripening rice Two crops per year When introduced into the fertile fields of southern China, fast-ripening rice quickly expanded the food supply Chinese characters for “rice field”

New Agricultural Techniques : 

New Agricultural Techniques Heavy iron plows Harnessed oxen and water buffaloes Enriched soil with manure and composted organic matter Extensive irrigation systems Reservoirs, dams, pumps, water wheels

Cities : 

Cities Southern Gate of Chang’an

Cities : 

Cities Increased food supplies encouraged the growth of cities During the Tang Dynasty, the imperial capital of Chang’an was the world’s most populous city Perhaps two million residents During the Song Dynasty, the capital of Hangzhou had over a million residents Southern terminus of the Grand Canal

Economic Exchange : 

Economic Exchange Coins from the Tang Dynasty Yellow and Yangzi Rivers

Economic Exchange: Grand Canal : 

Economic Exchange: Grand Canal Grand Canal built during the Sui Dynasty (precursor to Tang) One of the world’s largest waterworks projects before modern times Built to facilitate trade between northern and southern China, China’s rivers generally flow east to west so an artificial waterway had to be built to facilitate trade between north and south

The Grand Canal Con’t : 

The Grand Canal Con’t Almost 1,240 miles, reportedly forty paces wide, with roads running parallel to the waterway on either side

Economic Exchange: Letters of Credit : 

Economic Exchange: Letters of Credit Trade grew so rapidly during the Tang and Song era that copper coin shortages developed Traders began issuing letters of credit (“flying cash”) as an alternative Enabled merchants to deposit goods or cash at one location and draw the equivalent cash or merchandise somewhere else Coin from Tang Dynasty

Economic Exchange: Paper Money : 

Economic Exchange: Paper Money The search for alternatives to cash also led to the invention of paper money During the late ninth century, wealthy merchants began accepting cash from their clients and issuing them printed notes that the clients could redeem for merchandise Greatly facilitated commercial transactions

Specialization : 

Specialization Agricultural Regional Areas of Specialization

Specialization : 

Specialization Increased urbanization Merchants, artisans, metallurgists, printers, chemists, craftsmen, textile workers, performers, restaurateurs, etc The government developed a specialized class of bureaucrats

Social Hierarchy: Centralization : 

Social Hierarchy: Centralization Tang society revolved around centralized imperial rule Early successes based on Well-articulated transportation and communication network (Grand Canal) Equal-field system Bureaucracy of merit

Social Hierarchy: Equal-field System : 

Social Hierarchy: Equal-field System Governed allocation of agricultural land Ensured equal distribution of land to avoid the concentration of landed property Land was allotted to individuals and their families according to the land’s fertility and the recipient’s needs About 1/5 of the land became the hereditary possession of the recipients, while the rest was available for redistribution

Social Hierarchy: Tang Bureaucracy : 

Social Hierarchy: Tang Bureaucracy Recruitment from Confucian tutors Imperial civil service examinations Some powerful families were able to use their influence, but most officeholders won their posts on the basis of intellectual ability Talented class of bureaucrats were generally loyal to the dynasty and worked to strengthen and preserve the state

Social Hierarchy: Song Bureaucracy : 

Social Hierarchy: Song Bureaucracy Song rulers mistrusted the military so they placed more emphasis on civil administration Scholar bureaucrats proved to have limited military expertise and Song was vulnerable to military aggression Song increased centralization and built an enormous bureaucracy Devoured China’s surplus production and strained the treasury Efforts to raise taxes led to two peasant rebellions

Religion and Education : 

Religion and Education Buddha from Tang Dynasty

Religion and Education : 

Religion and Education Buddhist merchants visited China as early as the second century B.C. Found a popular following in Tang and Song China Emphasized high standards of morality, intellectual sophistication, and a promise of salvation

New Technologies : 

New Technologies Song porcelain Canon ca. 1368

Porcelain : 

Porcelain Produced porcelain which was lighter, thinner, and adaptable to more uses than earlier pottery Strong enough and attractive enough to serve utilitarian or aesthetic purposes Tang and Song products gained such a reputation that porcelain is commonly called “china” Tang Marble Glazed Porcelain Figure

Printing : 

Printing Book printing ca. 868

Printing : 

Printing Earliest printers used block-printing techniques By the mid-eleventh century, printers began to experiment with movable type Speeded up the process and allowed printers to make revisions and corrections Facilitated production and distribution of texts quickly, cheaply, and in large quantities

Impact of Movable Type : 

Impact of Movable Type Allowed large production and distribution of Buddhist texts Confucian works Calendars Agricultural treatises Popular works

Gunpowder : 

Gunpowder During the Tang era, Taoist alchemists learned it was dangerous to mix charcoal, saltpeter, sulphur, and arsenic Military officials saw possibilities By the tenth-century, the Tang military was using gunpowder in bamboo “fire lances,” a kind of flame thrower and by the eleventh century they had made primitive bombs

Art and Writing : 

Art and Writing Poet Li Bo Poet Du Fu

Art and Writing : 

Art and Writing The ruling and elite classes of the Tang and Song Dynasties were major supporters of Chinese painting. Sought elaborate and ornate art with political and educational significance Stressed realism

Korea and Vietnam : 

Korea and Vietnam Korea becomes a tributary state in 669 Silla dynasty More emphasis on aristocracy Adopt much of Tang culture Vietnam modeled much of Chinese culture before becoming a tributary state Women have larger role Get independence after fall of Tang

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