Chapter 14

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Chapter 14 : 

Chapter 14 Rise of the Islamic Caliphate

Focus of Chapter : 

Focus of Chapter While the Islamic caliphate is not the first society to be based on and supported by religion, it is probably the world’s most clear-cut example of a purely religious society.

Technical Vocabulary : 

Technical Vocabulary prophet

Arabs : 

Arabs Nomadic bedouins Hostile surroundings made the Arabs move constantly to continue to feed their animals Arabs organized into independent tribes to help each other with difficult lives Sheikh Camel expanded caravan trade from between Persian Gulf & Mediterranean

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Arab religion : 

Arab religion Polytheistic Allah = main god Traced their ancestry to Abraham & his son Ishmael, who were believed to have built a shrine called the Kaaba at Mecca

Muhammad : 

Muhammad Born into merchant family in Mecca, orphaned early Became a caravan merchant & married his boss, a rich widow named Khadija Muhammad was troubled with gap between the greedy rich & honest poor Muhammad went into mountains to meditate on the issue While meditating, Muhammad received revelation from God through the angel Gabriel

Muhammad’s Revelations : 

Muhammad’s Revelations Believed Allah had revealed himself partially to Moses & Jesus Muhammad is the final prophet Islam = submission to the will of Allah Quran = Muslim bible based on Muhammad revelations contains ethical guidelines for Muslims

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The Quran: Holy Book Of Islam

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Values: Honor parents Be kind to neighbors Protect widows and orphans Give to the poor Condemns: Murder Stealing Lying Adultery Forbids: Gambling Pork Alcohol Regulates: Marriage Divorce Inheritance Business Endorses: Polygamy Slavery Jihad The Quran

Early Islamic State : 

Early Islamic State Muhammad became a religious, political, & military leader Is unpopular at first and forced to flee Mecca for Medina In 630, Muhammad returned to Mecca with 10,000 soldiers/ converts Muhammad declared the Kaaba to be a sacred shrine Muhammad died 2 years later

Five Pillars of Islam : 

Five Pillars of Islam Faith Prayer Charity (zakat) Fasting during Ramadan Pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj)

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There is no deity except Allah (the One and Only God), Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.

Slide 18: 

Celebrating The Last Day of Ramadan

Slide 19: 

Pil Pilgrims On The Road to And Camped Outside of Makkah

Slide 20: 

Al-Haram Mosque Holds the Kaaba

Muhammad dies 632 : 

Muhammad dies 632 Duty to carry on his message Muhammad did not name a successor or explain how to choose a new leader Use old tribal customs to elect Abu-Bakr Caliph Means “successor” or “deputy”

Abu-Bakr : 

Abu-Bakr Invoked jihad to reunite the Muslims Means “striving” Had to use force to ensure splinter groups did not break off Also expanded Islam in this manner Controlled all of Arabia by his death

Other “Rightly Guided” Caliphs : 

Other “Rightly Guided” Caliphs Umar Conquered Syria and lower Egypt Both parts of the Byzantine Empire Uthman Ali Territory covers 6000 miles by 750

Reasons for Success : 

Reasons for Success Muslims wanted to spread their faith Victories proved Allah was on their side, so they fought harder Well disciplined army No other power capable of stopping them Byzantine Empire in decline by this point Very tolerant of conquered people Could practice their own religions peacefully Could be in government

Civil War : 

Civil War Uthman murdered in 656 Ali comes to power Ali’s rule was challenged by Muawiya Ali assassinated 661 Umayyad family seizes power and makes caliph position dynastic

Umayyad Dynasty : 

Umayyad Dynasty Move capital to Damascus Surround themselves with wealth

Slide 30: 

Damascus: Umayyad Capital

Islam splits : 

Islam splits Sunni First four caliphs were “rightly guided” Muslim rulers should follow the Sunna or Muhammad’s example Claim the Shia’ have changed the meaning of various passages of the Qu’ran Make up 83% of all Muslims today Shi’a Ali, the Prophet’s son-in-law should have succeeded Muhammad Muslim rulers should be descended from Muhammad; do not recognize the authority of the Sunna Claim the Sunni’s have changed the meaning of various passages of the Qu’ran Make up 16% of all Muslims today

Sufi : 

Sufi Third group of Muslims Very small; less than 1% of all Muslims today Believe in a life of poverty and pure spirituality

Abbasid Dynasty overthrows Umayyads in 750. : 

Abbasid Dynasty overthrows Umayyads in 750. Murder all the Umayyads One escapes and gets to Spain Creates a Muslim state in Spain separate from the Abbasids Move capital to Baghdad Closer to trade routes Developed huge bureaucracy Sent diplomats to Europe, Africa and Asia

Lots of Muslim trade : 

Lots of Muslim trade Worked with both the Mediterranean traders and the Indian Ocean traders Used only the Abbasid dinar from China to the Byzantine Empire Sakk Lines of credit that could be cashed at any Muslim bank Pronounced “check” Controlled the largest cities in the world at the time

Islamic Civilization : 

Islamic Civilization Generally prosperous Based on extensive trade by ship & camel Large magnificent cities began to prosper……..Baghdad, Cairo, Damascus, Cordoba Islamic cities had their own physical appearance Palace & mosques = most impressive buildings Fountains, public baths, bazaars

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Islamic Society : 

Islamic Society Live in accordance with Allah’s teachings revealed in the Quran All people are equal in the eyes of Allah was not always the case in the Arab empire = well defined upper class of ruling families & wealthy merchants Slaves were not considered equal Muslims could not be slaves Slaves came from south Africa or Asia, mostly captives of war treated pretty well, many were set free

Islamic Society : 

Islamic Society Men dominated Arab empire Every woman had a male guardian Women were secluded at home & kept from social contacts with men outside their families Parents arranged marriages for children Muslim men could have up to 4 wives had to pay dowry Women covered much of their bodies while in public These customs are more connected with Arab practice than to the teachings of the Quran

Achievements : 

Achievements House of Wisdom = Baghdad, Arab scholars translated Greek works by Plato, Aristotle, etc Math = created algebra & passed on India’s numbering system known as “Arabic” in Europe Science = perfected astrolabe-used by sailors to determine location by looking at position of planets & stars observatory in Baghdad where scientists studied and named many stars

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Arabic Achievements

Achievements : 

Achievements Medicine = developed medicine as a field of study medical encyclopedia Literature = Quran was main book Omar Khayyam wrote Rubaiyat/ Arabian Nights (1001 Nights) collection of folktales & fables that were first told orally & then written down over many years Art/Architecture = blends together Arabic, Turkish, & Persian traditions

Achievements : 

Achievements Arabesques- geometric patterns of Arabic letters, plants, & abstract figures No representation of Muhammad in any art/ prophet warned against imitating God by creating pictures Great Mosque of Samarra is the largest Mosque ever built = present day Iraq, covers 10 acres Mosque in Cordoba, Spain = 514 columns make building into a forest of trees Palaces reflected the glory of Islam

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