Hyperhidrosis

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Hyperhidrosis : 

1 Hyperhidrosis Dee Anna Glaser, M.D. Associate Professor Vice Chairman Department of Dermatology Saint Louis University

What is Hyperhidrosis? : 

2 What is Hyperhidrosis? Sweating that is more than required to maintain normal thermal regulation

Sweating Nomenclature : 

3 Sweating Nomenclature Areas: Focal, regional, generalized Symmetry: Symmetric or asymmetric Classification: Primary vs. secondary Type of sweating: Anhidrosis, euhydrosis, hyperhidrosis Multi-specialty Working Group on Recognition, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Primary Focal Hyperhidrosis, 2003.

Hyperhidrosis : 

4 Hyperhidrosis

Causes of Generalized Hyperhidrosis : 

5 Causes of Generalized Hyperhidrosis Usually secondary in nature Drugs, toxins, substance abuse Cardiovascular disorders Respiratory failure Infections Malignancies Hodgkin’s, myleoproliferative disorders, cancers with increased catabolism Endocrine/metabolic disorders Thyrotoxicosis, pheochromocytoma, acromegaly, carcinoid tumor, hypoglycemia, menopause Rarely Idiopathic / Primary HH

Causes of Localized Hyperhidrosis : 

6 Causes of Localized Hyperhidrosis Usually Idiopathic / Primary Social anxiety disorder Eccrine nevus Gustatory sweating Frey syndrome Impaired evaporation Stump hyperhidrosis after amputation

Idiopathic (Primary) Focal Hyperhidrosis : 

7 Idiopathic (Primary) Focal Hyperhidrosis

US Prevalence : 

8 US Prevalence Survey mailed to a representative sample of 150,000 US households in January 2002 Prevalence of hyperhidrosis in the US is 2.8% (7.8 million individuals) 64% response rate Approximately 6,800 respondents with hyperhidrosis 32.4% of individuals with axillary hyperhidrosis (0.5% of the US population or 1.3 million people) have sweating that is barely tolerable and frequently interferes with their daily activities, or is intolerable and always interferes with their daily activities (based on the HDSS). Projected to the US population 50.8% have axillary hyperhidrosis: US prevalence is 1.4% (4 million individuals) Strutton DR, Kowalski JW, Glaser DA, Stang PE. American Academy of Dermatology 61st Annual Meeting; March 21-26, 2003; San Francisco, Calif. Abstract P362.

Mean Age of Onset : 

9 Mean Age of Onset

Heredity/Genetics : 

10 Heredity/Genetics Herbst, Ann Surg 1994 Retrospective questionnaire following ETS for 1° hyperhidrosis 270/323 patients responded 31.5% reported positive family history Ro, J Vasc Surg 2002 Controlled prospective study of patients with 1° hyperhidrosis presenting for ETS 49/58 patients responded to detailed FH questionnaire 65% reported + FH (.28 risk offspring, .14 risk parents) Concluded gene present in 5% of population with 25% penetrance ETS = Endoscopic Thoracic Sympathectomy

Diagnosis of Primary Focal Hyperhidrosis : 

11 Diagnosis of Primary Focal Hyperhidrosis Focal, visible, excessive sweating of at least 6 months duration without apparent cause with at least 2 of the following characteristics: Bilateral and relatively symmetric Impairs daily activities Frequency of at least one episode per week Age of onset less than 25 years Positive family history Cessation of focal sweating during sleep Multi-specialty Working Group on Recognition, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Primary Focal Hyperhidrosis, 2003.

Diagnostic Work-up : 

12 Diagnostic Work-up History Age of onset Location Trigger factors Review of symptoms Physical exam Laboratory evaluation Gravimetric – 1° research tool Starch iodine – defines area of disease Starch iodine test, with the darkened area showing location of excessive sweating

Axillary Sweat Production : 

13 1° hyperhidrosis patients healthy controls 346.0 Hund et al. Arch Derm 2002;138(4):539-41 Axillary Sweat Production

DLQI Total Scores and Ranges by Dermatological Disease/ConditionDiseases with DLQI Scores 10 or Greater : 

14 DLQI Total Scores and Ranges by Dermatological Disease/ConditionDiseases with DLQI Scores 10 or Greater Disease DLQI Score (baseline) Hyperhidrosis palms 18–8.8 Hyperhidrosis axillary 17–10 Eczema (inpatient) 16.2 Focal hyperhidrosis (general) 15.5–9.2 Psoriasis (inpatient) 13.9 Hyperhidrosis forehead 12.5 Atopic eczema 12.5–5.8 Psoriasis (outpatient) 11.9–4.51 Contact dermatitis 10.8 Pruritus 10.5–10 Spalding et al. Value in Health 2003;6(3):242(abstract) Scores range from 0 to 30, with 30 indicating the worst quality of life.

Quality of life: Primary Axillary Hyperhidrosis : 

15 Quality of life: Primary Axillary Hyperhidrosis Less confident 72% Unhappy/depressed 49% Change type of leisure activities 45% Frustrated with daily activities 30% Miss outings/events 25% Decrease time in leisure activities 19% Naumann et al. Brit J Derm 2002;147:1218-26

Quality of Life:Primary Palmar Hyperhidrosis : 

16 Quality of Life:Primary Palmar Hyperhidrosis Interference with daily tasks 95% Social embarrassment 90% Psychological difficulties 40% 100 patients, palmar, presenting for sympathectomy Adar et al Ann Surg;186: 1977 34-41

Available Treatments : 

17 Available Treatments Topical agents Iontopheresis Systemic agents Botulinum toxin Surgery Sweat gland resection ETS

Treatment Response : 

18 Treatment Response

Summary : 

19 Summary Primary Focal Hyperhidrosis is a separate and unique disease Bilateral & symmetric Axilla, palms, soles, craniofacial Onset in childhood and adolescence Significant impact on quality of life Effective therapies

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